Comprehensive sources on Sophistic rhetoric (Greek rhetoric before Plato), See separate bibliographies for Thucydides, Gorgias, and Isocrates . As more of the Great Sophists attract attention from rhetoricians, they may be given separate bibliographies.


Ambrose, Z. P. "Socrates and Prodicus in the Clouds." Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy. Vol. II. Albany: SUNY P, 1983. 129-144. Benjamin, James. "Eristic, Dialectic, and Rhetoric." Communication Quarterly 31 (1983): 21-26.

Benson, Hugh. "A Note on Eristic and the Socratic Elenchus." Journal of the History of Philosophy 27 (1989): 591-599.

Consigny, Scott. "Edward Schiappa's Reading of the Sophists." Rhetoric Review 14 (1996): 253-269.

---. "Nietzsche's Reading of the Sophists."Rhetoric Review 13 (1994): 5-26.

Crick, Nathan. "The Sophistical Attitude and the Invention of Rhetoric." Quarterly Journal of Speech 96/1 (2010): 25-45.

Crowley, Sharon.. "A Plea for the Revival of Sophistry." Rhetoric Review 7 (1989): 318-334. Enos, Richard. Greek Rhetoric Before Aristotle. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland P, 1993.

Forrest, W. G. "An Athenian Generation Gap." Yale Classical Studies 24 (1975): 37-54.

Gencarella, Stephen Olbrys.  "Purifying Rhetoric: Empedocles and the Myth of Rhetorical Theory."  Quarterly Journal of Speech 96/3 (2010): 231-256.

Guthrie, W. K. C. The Sophists. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1971.

Henrichs, A. "The Sophists and Hellenistic Religion: Prodicus as the Spiritual Father of the Isis Aretalogies." Actes du VIIe Congrès de la Fédération Internationale des Associations d'Etudes classiques. Budapest: Akad. Kiado, 1984. 339-353.

---. "Two Doxographical Notes: Democritus and Prodicus on Religion." Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 79 (1975): 93-123.

Hodges, Karen A. "Unfolding Sophistic and Humanist Practice through Ingenium." Rhetoric Review 15 (1996): 86-92.

Hoffman, David C. "Murder in Sophistopolis: Paradox and Probability in the First Tetralogy." Argumentation & Advocacy 45/1 (2008): 1-20.

Jarratt, Susan C. Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Reconsidered. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.

Jarratt, Susan C. "The Role of the Sophists in Histories of Consciousness." Philosophy & Rhetoric 23/2 (1990): 85-95.

Johnstone, Christopher. "Communicating in Classical Contexts: The Centrality of Delivery." Quarterly Journal of Speech 87 (2001): 121-142.

Kerferd, G. B. The Sophistic Movement. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1981.

Kirby, John T. "The 'Great Triangle' in Early Greek Rhetoric and Poetics." Rhetorica 8 (1990): 213-228.

Lentz, T. M. "Writing as Sophistry: From Preservation to Persuasion." Quarterly Journal of Speech 68 (1982): 60-68.

Moss, Roger. "The Case for Sophistry." Rhetoric Revalued: Papers from the International Society for the History of Rhetoric. Ed. Brian Vickers. Binghamton, NY: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, 1982. 207-224.

Nehamas, Alexander "Eristic, Antilogic, Sophistic, Dialectic: Plato's Demarcation of Philosophy from Sophistry." History of Philosophy Quarterly 7 (1990): 3-16.

Newman, John K. "Protagoras, Gorgias and the Dialogic Principle." Illinois Classical Studies 11 (1986): 43-61.

Poster, Carol. "Persuasion in an Empty Ontology: The Eleatic Synthesis of Philosophy, Poetry, and Rhetoric." Philosophy & Rhetoric 27 (1994): 277-299.

Poster, Carol. "The Task of the Bow: Heraclitus' Rhetorical Critique of Epic Language." Philosophy & Rhetoric 39/1 (2006): 1-21.

Poulakos, John.  "Early Changes in Rhetorical Practice and Understanding: From the Sophists to Isocrates." Texte 8 (1989): 307-324.

---. "Extending and Correcting the Rhetorical Tradition: Aristotle's Perception of the Sophists. Ed. Christopher Lyle Johnstone. Theory, Text, Context: Issues in Greek Rhetoric and Oratory. Albany : State U of New York P, 1996. 45-63.

---.  "Gorgias' and Isocrates' Use of the Encomium." Southern Communication Journal 51 (1986): 300-307.

---. "Interpreting Sophistical Rhetoric: A Response to Schiappa." Philosophy & Rhetoric 23 (1990): 218-228.

---. "Rhetoric, the Sophists, and the Possible." Communication Monographs 51 (1984): 215-226.

---. Sophistical Rhetoric in Classical Greece. Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 1995.

---. "Toward a Sophistic Definition of Rhetoric." Philosophy & Rhetoric 16 (1983): 35-48.

Pullman, George L. "Reconsidering Sophistic Rhetoric in Light of Skeptical Epistemology." Rhetoric Review 13 (1994): 50-68.

de Romilly, Jacqueline. Magic and Rhetoric in Ancient Greece. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1975.

---. The Great Sophists in Periclean Athens. Oxford: Clarendon, 1992.

Rossetti, Livio. "The Rhetoric of Zeno's Paradoxes." Philosophy & Rhetoric 21 (1988): 145-152.

Scenters-Zapico, John. "The Case for the Sophists." Rhetoric Review 11 (1993): 352- .

Schiappa, Edward. "History and Neo-Sophistic Criticism: A Reply to Poulakos." Philosophy & Rhetoric 23 (1990): 307-315.

---. "Neo-Sophistic Rhetorical Criticism or the Historical Reconstruction of Sophistic Doctrines?" Philosophy & Rhetoric 23 (1990): 192-217.

---. Protagoras and Logos: A Study in Greek Philosophy and Rhetoric. Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 1991.

---. "Some of My Best Friends Are Sophists: A Response to Scott Consigny." Rhetoric Review 14 (1996): 272-279.

Sullivan, Dale. "Kairos and the Rhetoric of Belief." Quarterly Journal of Speech 78 (1992): 317-332.

Ward, John O. "Magic and Rhetoric from Antiquity to the Renaissance: Some Ruminations." Rhetorica 6 (1988): 57-118.

Wheeler, E. L. "Sophistic Interpretations and Greek Treaties." Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 25 (1984): 253-274.

Wright, M. R. "Presocratics and Sophists." Phronesis 40 (1995): 118- .

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