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Comprehensive in rhetoric and communication peer reviewed books and journals.  Selective in other literature on specific presidents.  As the titles under a particular president increase they may be moved to a separate page or group of pages for that president.  If the president's name appears in the title it goes here.  Comparisons of more than one president may be listed twice under each president and/or placed in General and Comparative sources.  The small but growing literature on First Ladies is included here as part of the rhetorical presidency, under the respective President.

John Adams, 1797-1801Edit

Farrell, J. M. (2002). Classical virtue and presidential fame: John Adams, leadership, and the Franco-American crisis. In L. G. Dorsey (Ed.), The presidency and rhetorical leadership (pp. 73-94). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

James Buchanan, 1857-1861 Edit

Terrill, R. E. (2008). James Buchanan: Romancing the union. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 166-193). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Bush, George H. W., Sr., 1989-1992Edit

Harlow, W. F. (2006). And the walls came tumbling doesn: Bush's rhetoric of silence duirng German reunification. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), The rhetorical presidency of George H. W. Bush (pp. 37-55). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Hawdon, J. E. (2004). The role of presidential rhetoric in the creation of a moral panic: Reagan, Bush, and the War on Drugs. Deviant Behavior, 22, 419-445.

Palczewski, Catherine Helen, and Arnie Madsen. "The Divisiveness of Diversity: President Bush's University of Michigan Commencement Speech as an Example of the Linguistic 'Turnaround'." Argumentation and Advocacy 30 (1993): 16-27.

Robertson, T. (1995). Winning the peace: The “Three Pillars” of George Bush at Whitehall Palace. Speaker and Gavel, 42, 35-46.

Rountree, J. Clarke. "The President as God, the Recession as Evil: "Actus, Status", and the President's Rhetorical Bind in the 1992 Election." Quarterly Journal of Speech 81 (1995): 325-352.

Schultz, D. (2006). Moblizing museums: Visual arguments in the George H. W. Bush (41) Museum. In P. Riley (Ed.) Engaging Argument (pp. 243-249) . Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

Sigelman, Lee, & Cynthia Whissell. (2002). Projecting presidential personas on the radio: An addendum on the Bushes. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 32, 572-576.

Stanton, A. Q., & Peeples, J. A. (2000). Educational reform discourse: President George Bush on "America 2000". Communication Education, 49, 303-319.

Stuckey, M. E. (2005). Doing diversity across the partisan divide: George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and American national identity. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 179-205). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Stuckey, Mary. "Remembering the Future: Rhetorical Echoes of World War II and Vietnam in George Bush's Speech on the Gulf War." Communication Studies 43 (1992): 250-253.

Turner, P. K., & Ryden, R. (2000). How George Bush silenced Anita Hill: A Derridian view of the third persona in public argument. Argumentation and Advocacy, 37, 86-97.

University of Washington Discourse Analysis Group. "The Rhetorical Construction of a President." Discourse and Society 1 (1990): 189-200.

Winkler, C. K. (1995). Narrative reframing of public argument: George Bush's handling of the Persian Gulf conflict. In E. Schiappa (Ed.), Warranting assent: Case studies in argument evaluation (pp. 33-55). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Bush, George W., Jr., 2001-2009Edit

Bailey, D. C. (2008). Enacting transformation: George W. Bush and the Pauline converstion narrative in A Charge to Keep. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 11, 215-242.

Berggren, D. J., & Rae, N. C. (2006). Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush: Faith, foreign policy, and an evangelical presidential style. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36, 606-632.

Birdsell, D. S. (2007). George W. Bush’s signing statements: The assault on deliberation. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 10, 335-360.

Bostdorff, Denise. "George W. Bush's Post-September 11 Rhetoric of Covenant Renewal: Upholding the Faith of the Greatest Generation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 89 (2003): 293-319.

Crockett, D. A. (2003). George W. Bush and the unrhetorical rhetorical presidency. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 6, 465-486.

Eubanks, P., & Schaeffer, J. D.(2004). A dialogue between traditional and cognitive rhetoric: Readings of figuration in George W. Bush's 'Axis of Evil' address. Rhetoric Society Quarterly, 34, 53-70.

Ferguson, M. L. (2005). “W” stands for women: Feminism and security rhetoric in the post-9/11 Bush administration. Politics & Gender, 1, 9-38.

Gunn, Joshua. "The Rhetoric of Exorcism: George W. Bush and the Return of Political Demonology." Western Journal of Communication 68 (2004): 1-23.

Hasian, M., Jr. (2007). Dangerous supplements, inventive dissent, and military critiques of the Bush administration's unitary executive theories. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 693–716.

Medhurst, Martin J. "George W. Bush at Goree Island: American Slavery and the Rhetoric of Redemption." Quarterly Journal of Speech 96/3 (2010): 257-277.

Mueller, Alfred G. "George W. Bush's Use of reprehensio in His Post-9/11 Address to the Nation." Pennsylvania Communication Annual 58-59 (2002/2003): 60-73.

Rex, J. (2011). The president's war agenda: A rhetorical view. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 93-118. (McKinley and Bush)

Riswold, C. D. (2004). A religious response veiled in a presidential address: A theological study of Bush's speech on 20 September 2001. Political Theology, 5, 39-46.

Semmler, S. M. (2003). Fetching good out of evil: George W. Bush's post 9/11 rhetoric. Speaker and Gavel, 40, 67-90.

Simons, H. W. (2007). From post-9/11 melodrama to quagmire in Iraq: A rhetorical history. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 10, 183-194.

Sigelman, Lee, & Cynthia Whissell. (2002). Projecting presidential personas on the radio: An addendum on the Bushes. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 32, 572-576.

Smith, C. A. (2005). President Bush’s enthymeme of evil: The amalgamation of 9/11, iraq, and moral values. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 32-47.

Stuckey, M. E., & Ritter, J. R. (2007). George Bush, <Human Rights>, and American Democracy. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 646–666.

Valenzano, J. M. (2005). The hoofbeats of history: George W. Bush and FDR on the path to very different wars. In C. A. Williard (Ed.), Critical problems in argumentation (pp. 795-801). Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

VanderHaagen, S. C. (2008). Renewing tradition in community: Geroge W. Bush, Calvin College, and the controversy over identity. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 11, 535-568.

Veil, S. (2005). To answer, or not to answer— That is the question of the hour: Image restoration strategies and media coverage of past drug use questions in the presidential campaigns of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush. Speaker and Gavel, 42, 58-78.

Williams, D. C., & Young, M. J. (2006). Managing "Democracy" in the age of terrorism: Putin, Bush and arguments from definition. In P. Riley (Ed.) Engaging Argument (pp. 297-103) . Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

Winkler, C. (2007). Parallels in preemptive war rhetoric: Reagan on Libya, Bush 43 on Iraq. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 10, 303–334.

Zarefsky, David. "George W. Bush Discovers Rhetoric: September 20, 2001, and the U. S. Response to Terrorism." The Ethos of Rhetoric. Ed. Michael J. Hyde. Greenville: U of South Carolina P, 2004. 136-155.

Carter, Jimmy, 1977-1981Edit

Altenberg, Les, and Robert Cathcart. "Jimmy Carter on Human Rights: A Thematic Analysis." Central States Speech Journal 33 (1982): 446-457.

Berggren, D. J., & Rae, N. C. (2006). Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush: Faith, foreign policy, and an evangelical presidential style. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36, 606-632.

Blair, D. M., & Parry-Giles, J. P. (2004). Rosalyn Carter: Crafting a presidential partnership rhetorically. In M. M. Wertheimer (Ed.) Inventing a voice: The rhetoric of American First Ladies of the twentieth century (pp. 341-364). Oxford, England: Rowman & Littlefield.

Campbell, J. Louis. "Jimmy Carter and the Rhetoric of Charisma." Central States Speech Journal 30 (1979): 174-186.

Check, T. (2000). "The Moral Equivalent of War": Jimmy Carter's use of metaphor and mortification in the energy speech of April 18, 1977. T. A. Hollihan (Ed.), Argument at century's end: Reflecting on the past and envisioning the future (pp. 403-410).Annandale, VA: National Communication Association.

Conley, R. S. (2011). The harbinger of the unitary executive? An analysis of presidential signing Statements from Truman to Carter. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 546-569.

Flint, A. R., & Joy Porter, J. (2005). Jimmy Carter: The re-emergence of faith-based politics and the abortion rights issue. Presidential Studies Quarterly. 35, 28-51.

Kraig, Robert Alexander. "The Tragic Science: The Uses of Jimmy Carter in Foreign Policy Realism." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 1-30.

Patton, John H. "A Government as Good as its People: Jimmy Carter and the Restoration of Transcendance to Politics." Quarterly Journal of Speech 63 (1977): 249-257.

Cleveland, Grover, 1885-1889, 1893-1896Edit

Hoffmann, Karen S. "'Going Public' in the Nineteenth Century: Grover Cleveland's Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 57-77.

Clinton, William J., 1993-2001Edit

Benoit, William L., A. A. Kluykovski, J. P. McHale, and D. Airne. "A Fantasy Theme Analysis of Political Cartoons on the Clinton-Lewinsky-Starr Affair. Critical Studies in Media Communication 18 (2001): 377-394.

Benoit, W. L., & Wells, W. T. (1998). An analysis of three image restoration discourses on Whitewater. Journal of Public Advocacy, 3, 21-37.

Blaney, J. R., and William L. Benoit. The Clinton Scandals and the Politics of Image Restoration. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.

Brovero, Adrienne F. "'Thirteen Angry Men': Dale Bumpers' ad hominem Argument in the Impeachment Trial of President Clinton. Argumentation and Advocacy 36 (2000): 218-226.

Brown, L. M. (2007). The contemporary presidency: The greats and the great debate: President William J. Clinton’s use of presidential exemplars. Presidential Studies Quarterly 37, 124-138.

Butler, J. R. "Somalia and the Imperial Savage: Continuities in the Rhetoric of War." Western Journal of Communication 66 (2002): 1-24.

Denton, Robert E., and R. L. Holloway, eds. The Clinton Presidency: Images, Issues, and Communication Strategies. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.

Durant. R. F. (2006). A "New Covenant" kept: Core values, presidential communications, and the paradox of the Clinton presidency. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36, 345-372.

Goodnight, G. Thomas, and Kathryn M. Olson.  "Shared Power, Foreign Policy, and Haiti, 1994: Public Memories of War and Race." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 9/4 (2006): 601-634.

Han, L. C. (2006). New Strategies for an Old Medium: The Weekly Radio Addresses of Reagan and Clinton. Congress & the Presidency, 33, 25-45.

Holloway, R. L. "Taking the Middle Ground: Clinton's Rhetoric of Conjoined Values." The 1996 Presidential Campaign: A Communication Perspective. Ed. Robert E. Denton. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998. 123-141.

Kramer, Michael R., and Kathryn M. Olson. "The Strategic Potential of Sequencing Apologia Stases: President Clinton's Self-Defense in the Monica Lewinsky Scandal." Western Journal of Communication 66 (2002): 347-368.

Jamieson, Kathleen Hall, Erika Falk, and Susan Scherr. "The Enthymeme Gap in the 1996 Presidential Campaign." PS: Political Science and Politics 32 (1999): 12-16.

Murphy, John M. "Inventing Authority: Bill Clinton, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Orchestration of Rhetorical Traditions." Quarterly Journal of Speech 83 (1997): 71-89.

Olson, K. M. (2004). Democratic enlargement's value hierarchy and rhetorical forms: An analysis of Clinton's use of a post-cold war symbolic frame to justify military interventions. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 34, 307-340.

Parry-Giles, S. J., &T. Parry-Giles. "Collective Memory, Political Nostalgia, and the Rhetorical Presidency: Bill Clinton's Commemoration of the March on Washington, August 28, 1998." Quarterly Journal of Speech 86 (2000): 417-437.

Roundtree, J. C., III (1995). The president as God, the recession as evil: Actus, status, and the president's rhetorical bind in the 1992 election. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 81, 325-352.

Sigelman, Lee, and Cynthia Whissell. "'The Great Communicator' and 'The Great Talker' on the Radio: Projecting Presidential Personas."Presidential Studies Quarterly32/1 (2002): 137-146.

Simons, Herbert W. "A Dilemma-Center Analysis of Clinton's August 17th Apologia: Implications for Rhetorical Theory and Method." Quarterly Journal of Speech 86 (2000): 438-453.

Smith, Stephen A., ed. Bill Clinton on Stump, State, and Stage: The Rhetorical Road to the White House. Fayetteville: U of Arkansas P, 1994.

Snee, B. J. "Clinton and Vietnam: A Case for Amnestic Rhetoric." Communication Quarterly 49 (2001): 189-202.

Stuckey, M. E. (2005). Doing diversity across the partisan divide: George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and American national identity. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 179-205). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Veil, S. (2005). To answer, or not to answer— That is the question of the hour: Image restoration strategies and media coverage of past drug use questions in the presidential campaigns of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush. Speaker and Gavel, 42, 58-78.

Waldman, Michael. POTUS Speaks: Finding the Words that Defined the Clinton Presidency. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

Walton, Douglas. "Use of ad hominem Argument in Political Discourse: The Battalino Case from the Impeachment Trial of President Clinton. Argumentation and Advocacy 36 (2000): 179-195

William J. Clinton Presidential Library and Museum .  Web.  10 Jun 2014.

Coolidge, Calvin, 1923-1929 Edit

Hasian, M., Jr. (2005). Calvin Coolidge and the rhetoric of "race" in the 1920s. In J. A. Aune and E. D. Rigsby (Eds.) Civil rights rhetoric and the American presidency (pp. 41-61) . College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Shogan, C. J. (2006). Coolidge and Reagan: The rhetorical influence of Silent Cal on the Great Communicator. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 9, 215-234.

Eisenhower, Dwight D., 1953-1961Edit

Allen, C. (1993). Eisenhower and the mass media: Peace, prosperity, and prime time TV. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Chernus, Ira. Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2002.

---. General Eisenhower: Ideology and Discourse. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 2002.

Crable, Richard E. "Ike: Identification, Argument, and Paradoxical Appeal." Quarterly Journal of Speech 63 (1977): 188-196.

Danielson, Waune A. "Eisenhower's February Decision: A Study of News Impact." Journalism Quarterly 33 (1956): 433-441.

Freeley, Austin J. "Ethos, Eisenhower, and the 1956 Campaign." Central States Speech Journal 9 (1958): 24-26.

Kennedy, Theodore R. "Eisenhower as Extempore Speaker." Journal of Communication 8 (1958): 151-155.

Liftin, Duane A. "Eisenhower on the Military-Industrial Complex: Critique of a Rhetorical Strategy." Central States Speech Journal 25 (1974): 198-209.

Marlin, Charles Lowell. "Eisenhower Before the Press." Communication Quarterly 9 (1961): 23-25.

Medhurst, Martin J. Dwight D. Eisenhower: Strategic Communicator. Great American Orators 19. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1993.

Medhurst, Martin J., ed. Eisenhower's War of Words: Rhetoric and Leadership. East Lansing: Michigan State, UP, 1994.

Mueller, Jean West, and Wynell Burroughs Schamel. ""Out of Fear and Into Peace": President Eisenhower's Address to the United Nations." Social Education 54 (1990): 163-164.

O'Gorman, Ned. "Eisenhower and the American Sublime." Quarterly Journal of Speech 94/1 (2008): 44-72.

Scott, D. K. (2003). The Eisenhower/Khrushchev rhetorical compact: Toward a model of cooperative public discourse. Southern Communication Journal, 68, 287-306.

Scott. R. L. (1990). Eisenhower's farewell: The epistemic function of argument. In R. Trapp and J. Schuetz (Eds.) (1990). Perspectives on argumentation: Essays in honor of Wayne Brockriede. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Sillars, Malcolm O. "The Presidential Campaign of 1952." Western Journal of Communication 22 (1958): 94-99.

Stern, Mark. "Presidential Strategies and Civil Rights: Eisenhower, the Early Years." Presidential Studies Quarterly 19 (1990): 769-796.

Ford, Gerald, 1974-1977Edit

Hahn, Dan F. "Corrupt Rhetoric: President Ford and the Mayaguez Affair." Communication Quarterly 28 (1980): 38-43.

Klumpp, James F., and Jeffrey K. Lukeheart. "The Pardoning of Richard Nixon: A Failure in Motivational Strategy." Western Journal of Speech Communication 42 (1978): 116-123.

Grant, Ulysses S., 1869-1877 Edit

Goethals, G. R. (2008). Resolute commander for just peace: The rhetoric of Ulysses S. Grant. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 213-242). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Harding, Warren G., 1921-1923 Edit

Palmer, N. A. (2008). The Veterans' Bonus and the evolving presidency of Warren G. Harding. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 38, 39–60.

Harrison, Benjamin, 1889-1893 Edit

Wilson, K. H. (2008). The problem with public memory: Benjamin Harrison confronts the "Southern Question." In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 267-288). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Hayes, Rutherford B., 1877-1881 Edit

Slagell, A. R. (2008). The challenges of reunification: Rutherford B. Hayes on the close race and the racial divide. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 243-266). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Jackson, Andrew, 1829-1837Edit

Ellis, R. J., & Kirk, S. (1998). Jefferson, Jackson and the origins of presidential mandate. In R. J. Ellis (Ed.) Speaking to the people: The rhetorical presidency in historical perspective (pp. 35-65). Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Strickland, William M. "The Rhetoric of Removal and the Trail of Tears: Cherokee Speaking Against Jackson's Indian Removal Policy, 1828-1832." Southern Speech Communication Journal 47 (1981): 292-309.

Sullivan, John. "Indecorous Argument: The Use of Madison and Monroe in the Election of 1828." Southern Speech Communication Journal 45 (1979): 378-393.

Jefferson, Thomas, 1801-1809Edit

Browne, Stephen Howard. "'Circle of Our Felicities': Thomas Jefferson's First Inaugural Address and the Rhetoric of Nationhood." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 409-.

---. Jefferson's Call for Nationhood: The First Inaugural Address. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2003.

Ellis, R. J., & Kirk, S. (1998). Jefferson, Jackson and the origins of presidential mandate. In R. J. Ellis (Ed.) Speaking to the people: The rhetorical presidency in historical perspective (pp. 35-65). Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Golden, J. L. (2002). Thomas Jefferson and the rhetoric of virtue. Rowman & Littlefield.

Hilbruner, Anthony, "Word and Deed: Jefferson's Addresses to the Indians." Speech Monographs 30 (1963): 328-334.

Shogan, C. J. (2005). Jefferson's call for nationhood. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 35, 410-411.

Vivian, B. (2002). Jefferson’s other. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 88, 284-302.

Johnson, Andrew, 1865-1869Edit

Browne, S. H. (2008). Andrew Johnson and the politics of character. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 194-212). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Foster, L. (1866). Andrew Johnson, president of the United States; his life and speeches. Scholarly Publishing Office, University of Michigan Library.

Johnson, Lyndon B., 1963-1969Edit

Lyndon Baines Johnson Library .  Web. 10 Jun 2014.

Ball, Moya Ann. "Revisiting the Gulf of Tonkin Crisis: An Analysis of the Private Communication of President Johnson and His Advisers." Discourse and Society 2 (1991): 281-296.

Bass, J. D. "The Appeal to Efficacy as Narrative Closure: Lyndon Johnson and the Dominican Crisis, 1965." Southern Speech Communication Journal 50 (1985): 366-381.

Brock, B. L. & Scott, R. L. (1968). President Johnson's Vietnam address: Is a masterful political strategy necessarily a good speech? Speaker and Gavel, 142-147.

Brooks, William D. "A Field Study of the Johnson and Goldwater Campaign Speeches in Pittsburgh." Southern Speech Journal 32 (1966): 273-281.

Cherwitz, Richard A. "Making Inconsistency: The Tonkin Gulf Crisis." Communication Quarterly 28 (1980): 27-37.

---. "Lyndon Johnson and the 'Crisis' of Tonkin Gulf: A President's Justification of War." Western Journal of Speech Communication 42 (1978): 93-104.

Connelly, F. Marvin "Some Questions Concerning Lyndon Johnson's Rhetoric in the 1964 Presidential Campaign." Southern Speech Communication Journal 37 (1971): 11-20.

Gorden, William, and Robert Bunker. "The Sentimental Side of Mr. Johnson." Southern Speech Journal 32 (1966): 58-66.

Hahn, Dan F. "Archetype and Signature in Johnson's 1965 State of the Union." Central States Speech Journal 34 (1983): 236-246.

Hall, Robert N. "Lyndon B. Johnson's Speaking in the 1941 Senate Campaign." Southern Speech Journal 30 (1964): 15-23.

---. "Lyndon Johnson's Speech Preparation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 51 (1965): 168-176.

Harding, H. F. "Democratic Nominee: Lyndon B. Johnson." Quarterly Journal of Speech 50 (1964): 409-414.

Logue, Cal M., and John H. Patton. "From Ambiguity to Dogma: The Rhetorical Symbols of Lyndon B. Johnson on Vietnam." Southern Speech Communication Journal 47 (1981): 310-329.

Patton, John H. "An End and a Beginning: Lyndon B. Johnson's Decisive Speech of March 31, 1968." Today's Speech 21 (1973): 33-41.

Pauley,Garth E. (2007). LBJ's American promise: The 1965 Voting Rights address. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

Pauley, Garth E. "Rhetoric and Timeliness: An Analysis of Lyndon B. Johnson's Voting Rights Address." Western Journal of Communication 62 (1998): 26-53.

Pauley, G. E. (1997). Presidential rhetoric and interest group politics: Lyndon B. Johnson and the Civil Right Act of 1964. Southern Communication Journal, 63, 1-19.

Phelps, Waldo, and Andrea Beck. "Lyndon Johnson's Address at the U.C.L.A. Charter Day Ceremony." Western Speech 29 (1965): 162-171.

Sigelman, Lee, and Lawrence Miller. "Understanding Presidential Rhetoric: The Vietnam Statements of Lyndon Johnson." Communication Research 5 (1978): 25-56.

Smith, F. Michael. "Rhetorical Implications of the 'Aggression' Thesis in the Johnson Administration's Vietnam Argumentation." Central States Speech Journal 23 (1972): 217-224.

Smith, Robert W. "The 'Second' Inaugural Address of Lyndon Baines Johnson: A Definitive Text." Speech Monographs 34 (1967): 102-108.

Steudeman, Michael J. "'The Guardian Genius of Democracy': The Myth of the Heroic Teacher in Lyndon B. Johnson's Education Policy Rhetoric, 1964-1966." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 17/3 (2014): 477-510.

Weiss, Harold, and Haddon Robinson. "Lyndon B. Johnson." Quarterly Journal of Speech 46 (1960): 241.

Witherspoon, Patricia. ""Let Us Continue": The Rhetorical Initiation of Lyndon Johnson's Presidency." Presidential Studies Quarterly 17 (1987): 531-538.

Yuravlivker, D. (2006). "Peace without Conquest": Lyndon Johnson's speech of April 7, 1965. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 26, 457-481.

Zagacki, Kenneth S. "Rhetoric, Failure, and the Presidency: The Case of Vietnam." Communication Studies 43 (1992): 42-55.

Zarefsky, David. "Civil Rights and Civil Conflict: Presidential Communication in Crisis." Central States Speech Journal 34 (1983): 59-66.

---. "The Great Society as a Rhetorical Proposition." Quarterly Journal of Speech 65 (1979): 364-378.

---. "Lyndon Johnson Redefines 'Equal Opportunity': The Beginnings of Affirmative Action." Central States Speech Journal 31 (1980): 85-94.

---. "President Johnson's War on Poverty: The Rhetoric of Three 'Establishment' Movements." Communication Monographs 44 (1977): 352-373.

---. "Subordinating the Civil Rights Issue: Lyndon Johnson in 1964." Southern Speech Communication Journal 48 (1982): 103-118.

Kennedy, John F., 1961-1963Edit

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum . Web. 10 Jun 2014.

Barrett, Harold. "John F. Kennedy Before the Greater Houston Ministerial Association." Central States Speech Journal 15 (1964): 259-266.

Benson, Thomas W. Writing J. F. K.: Presidential Rhetoric and the Press in the Bay of Pigs Crisis. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2003.

Berquist, Goodwin F. "The Kennedy-Humphry Debate." Communication Quarterly 8 (1960): 2-3.

Bostrom, Robert N. ""I Give You A Man"--Kennedy's Speech for Adlai Stevenson." Communication Monographs 35 (1968): 129-136.

Carpenter, R. H. (2005). Rhetorical eloquence: John F. Kennedy's inaugural address. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Coleman, David G. The Fourteenth Day: JFK and the Aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co., 2012. Print.

Depoe, S. P. "Space and the 1960 Presidential Campaign: Kennedy, Nixon, and 'Public Time'." Western Journal of Communication 55 (1991): 215-233.

Dionisopoulos, George N. "Becoming JFK: A Profile In Communication." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 5.2 (2002): 359-363. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Pdf. 13 Oct. 2014.

Dorsey, Leroy G. "The Myth of War and Peace in Presidential Discourse: John F. Kennedy's 'New Frontier' Myth and the Peace Corps." Southern Communication Journal 62 (1996): 42-55.

Golden, James L. "John F. Kennedy and the 'Ghosts'." Quarterly Journal of Speech 52 (1966): 348-357.

Goldzwig, Steven R., and George N. Dionisopoulos. "In a Perilous Hour": The Public Address of John F. Kennedy. Great American Orators 22. Westport: Greenwood Publishing, 1994.

---. "John F. Kennedy's Civil Rights Discourse: The Evolution from 'Principled Bystander' to Public Advocate." Communication Monographs 56 (1989): 179-198.

---. "Legitimating Liberal Credentials for the Presidency: John F. Kennedy and the Strategy of Peace." Southern Communication Journal 60 (1995) : 312-331.

Griffin, Leland M. "When Dreams Collide: Rhetorical Trajectories in the Assassination of President Kennedy." Quarterly Journal of Speech 70 (1984): 111-131.

Harding, H. F. "John F. Kennedy: Campaigner." Quarterly Journal of Speech 46 (1960): 362-364.

Henggeler, Paul R. The Kennedy Persuasion: The Politics of Style Since JFK. Chicago: I.R. Dee, 1995. Print.

Jordan, John W. “Kennedy’s Romantic Moon and Its Rhetorical Legacy for Space Exploration.” Rhetoric and Public Affairs 6 (2003): 209-232.

Kennedy, Edward B. "Another Look at Kennedy's Inaugural Address." Communication Quarterly 13 (1965): 17-19.

Kerr, Harry P. "John F. Kennedy." Quarterly Journal of Speech 46 (1960): 241.

Kimble, James J. "John F. Kennedy, The Construction Of Peace, And The Pitfalls Of Androgynous Rhetoric." Communication Quarterly 57.2 (2009): 154-170. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Pdf. 13 Oct. 2014.

Meagher, Michael; Gragg, Larry D.. John F. Kennedy: A Biography. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2011. Ebook Library. Web. 13 Oct. 2014.

Miroff, Bruce. "The Kennedy Obsession: The American Myth of JFK." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 3.3 (2000): 487-489. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Pdf. 13 Oct. 2014.

Murphy, John M. "Crafting the Kennedy Legacy." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 3 (2000): 577-601.

Stelzner, Hermann G. "Humphrey and Kennedy Court West Virginia, May 3, 1960." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 37 (1971): 21-33.

Wager, Gerald A. "J. F. K. and the Offshore Islands." Communication Quarterly 15 (1967): 27-29.

Warnick, Barbara. "Argument Schemes and Construction of Social Reality: John F. Kennedy's Address at the Houston Ministerial Association." Communication Quarterly 44 (1996) : 183-196.

Wolfarth, Donald. "John F. Kennedy in the Tradition of Inaugural Speeches." Quarterly Journal of Speech 47 (1961): 124-132.

Lincoln, Abraham, 1861-1865.Edit

See listings under The Rhetorical Lincoln: Sources .

William McKinley, 1897-Sep 1901Edit

Childers, Jay P.  "The Democratic Balance: President McKinley's Assassination as Domestic Trauma." Quarterly Journal of Speech 99/2 (2013): 131-155.

Rex, J. (2011). The president's war agenda: A rhetorical view. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 93-118. (McKinley and Bush)

Saldin, R. P. (2011). William McKinley and the Rhetorical Presidency. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 119-134.

Nixon, Richard M., 1969-1974.Edit

Alexander, Frederick G. "Richard M. Nixon and Nelson A. Rockefeller." Quarterly Journal of Speech 47 (1960): 245.

Asen, Robert M. "Nixon's Welfare Reform: Enacting Historical Contradictions of Poverty Discourses." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 4 (2001): 261-279.

Baudhuin, E. Scott. "From Campaign to Watergate: Nixon's Communication Image." Western Journal of Communication 38 (1974): 182-189.

Benoit, William L. "Richard M. Nixon's Rhetorical Strategies in His Public Statements on Watergate." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 47 (1982): 192-211.

Benoit, William L., & W. T. Wells. "An analysis of three Image Restoration Discourses on Whitewater." Journal of Public Advocacy 3 (1998): 21-37.

Benson, Thomas W. "To Lend a Hand": Gerald R. Ford, Watergate, and the White House Speechwriters. Rhetoric and Public Affairs 1 (1998): 201-225.

Black, Edwin. "The invention of Nixon." Beyond the Rhetorical Presidency. Ed. Martin J. Medhurst. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1996. 104-121.

Bochin, Hal W. Richard Nixon: Rhetorical Strategist. Great Orators. New York: Greenwood, 1990.

Bostdorff, Denise M. "The Evolution of a Diplomatic Surprise: Richard M. Nixon's Rhetoric on China, 1952-July 15, 1971." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 31-56.

Brummett, Barry. "Presidential Substance: The Address of August 15,1973." Western Journal of Communication 48 (1975): 249-259.

Carpenter, Ronald A., and Robert V. Seltzer. "Nixon, Patton, and the Silent Majority Sentiment about the Viet Nam War: The Cinematographic Bases of a Rhetorical Stance." Central States Speech Journal 25 (1974): 105-110.

Carpenter, R. H. and Seltzer, R. V. (1970). On Nixon's Kennedy style. Speaker and Gavel, 41-43.

Chapel, William Gage. "Speechwriting in the Nixon Administration." Journal of Communication 26 (1976): 65-72.

Condit, Celeste M. "Nixon's "Fund": Time as Ideological Resource in the "Checkers" Speech." Texts in Context: Critical Dialogues on Significant Episodes in American Political Rhetoric. Ed. Michael C. Leff and Fred J. Kauffeld. Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press, 1989. 219-242.

Farrell, Thomas B. "The Carnival as Confessional: Re-Reading the Figurative Dimension in Nixon's "Checkers" Speech." Texts in Context: Critical Dialogues on Significant Episodes in American Political Rhetoric. Ed. Michael C. Leff and Fred J. Kauffeld. Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press, 1989. 243-252.

Freeman, Douglas N. "Freedom of Speech Within the Nixon Administration." Communication Quarterly 24 (1976): 3-10.

Gibson, James W., and Patricia K. Felkins. "A Nixon Lexicon." Western Journal of Communication 38 (1974): 190-198.

Gonchar, Ruth M., and Dan F. Hahn. "The Rhetorical Predictability of Richard M. Nixon." Communication Quarterly 19 (1971): 3-13.

Gouran, Dennis S. "The Watergate Cover-Up: Its Dynamics and Its Implications." Communication Monographs 42 (1976): 176-186.

Gregg, Richard B., and Gerald A. Hauser. "Richard Nixon's April 30,1970 Address on Cambodia: The "Ceremony" of Confrontation." Communication Monographs 40 (1973): 167-181.

Harrell, Jackson, B. L. Ware, and Wil A. Linkugel. "Failure of Apology in American Politics: Nixon on Watergate." Communication Monographs 42 (1975): 245-261.

Harris, Barbara Ann. "The Inaugural of Richard Milhous Nixon: A Reply to Robert L. Scott." Western Journal of Communication 34 (1970): 231-234.

Hart, Roderick P. "Absolutism and Situation: Prolegomena to a Rhetorical Biography of Richard M. Nixon." Communication Monographs 43 (1976): 204-228.

Hellweg, Susan A., and Steven L Phillips. "A Verbal and Visual Analysis of the 1980 Houston Republican Presidential Primary Debate." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 47 (1981): 23-38.

Hill, Forbes I. "Conventional Wisdom--Traditional Form: The President's Message of November 3, 1969." Quarterly Journal of Speech 58 (1972): 373-386.

Hillbruner, Anthony. "Archetype and Signature: Nixon and the 1973 Inaugural." Central States Speech Journal 25 (1974): 169-181.

Jablonski, Carol J. "Richard Nixon's Irish Wake: A Case of Generic Transference." Central States Speech Journal 30 (1979): 164-173.

Katula, Richard A. "The Apology of Richard M. Nixon." Communication Quarterly 23 (1975): 1-5.

King, Andrew A., and Floyd Douglas Anderson. "Nixon, Agnew, and the "Silent Majority": A Case Study in the Rhetoric of Polarization." Western Journal of Communication 35 (1971): 243-255.

Kissel, Bernard C. "Richard M. Nixon: Definition of An Image." Quarterly Journal of Speech 47 (1960): 357-361.

Klumpp, James F., and Jeffrey K. Lukehart. "The Pardoning of Richard Nixon: A Failure in Motivational Strategy." Western Journal of Communication 42 (1978): 116-123.

Lee, Ronald. "The Featuring of Will in History: A Rhetorical Exploration of Richard Nixon's Post Presidential Writings." Quarterly Journal of Speech 75 (1989): 433-466.

Linkugel, Wil A., and Dixie Lee Cody. "Nixon, McGovern, and the Female Electorate." Communication Quarterly 21 (1973): 25-32.

McGuckin, Henry E. "A Value Analysis of Richard Nixon's 1952 Campaign-Fund Speech." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 33 (1968): 259-269.

Newman, Robert P. "Under the Veneer: Nixon's Vietnam Speech of November 3, 1969." Quarterly Journal of Speech 56 (1970): 168-178.

Padrow, Ben, and Bruce Richards. "Richard Nixon...His Speech Preparation." Communication Quarterly 7 (1959): 11-12.

Porter, Laurinda W. "The White House Transcripts: Group Fantasy Events Concerning the Mass Media." Central States Speech Journal 27 (1976): 272-279.

Rasmussen, Karen. "Nixon and the Strategy of Avoidance." Central States Speech Journal 27 (1973): 272-279.

Rosenfield, Lawrence W. "A Case Study in Speech Criticism: The Nixon-Truman Analog." Communication Monographs 35 (1968): 435-450.

---. "The Victimage of Richard Nixon." Communication Quarterly 24 (1976): 19-23.

Rottinghaus, B. (2008). Opening the president's mailbag: The Nixon administration's rhetorical use of public opinion mail. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 38, 61–77.

Schuetz, Janice. "Communicative Competence and the Beginning of Watergate." Western Journal of Communication 42 (1978): 105-115.

Scott, Robert L. "Response to Barbara Ann Harris." Western Journal of Communication 34 (1970): 235-236.

---. "Rhetoric that Postures: An Intrinsic Reading of Richard M. Nixon's Inaugural Address." Western Journal of Communication 34 (1970): 46-52.

Smith, Craig Allen. "Richard Nixon's 1968 Acceptance Speech as a Model of Dual Audience Adaptation." Communication Quarterly 19 (1961): 15-22.

Stelzner, Hermann G. "The Quest Story and Nixon's November 3, 1969 Address." Quarterly Journal of Speech 57 (1971): 163-172.

Trent, Judith S. "Richard Nixon's Methods of Identification in the Presidential Campaigns of 1960 and 1968. A Content Analysis." Communication Quarterly 19 (1961): 23-20.

Vartabedian, Robert A. "Nixon's Vietnam Rhetoric: A Case Study of Apologia as Generic Paradox." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 50 (1985): 366-381.

Wilson, Gerald L. "A Strategy of Explanation: Richard M. Nixon's August 8, 1974, Resignation Address." Communication Quarterly 24 (1976): 14-20.

Obama, Barack, 2009-2016Edit

Amsden, Brian. "Dimensions of Temporality in President Obama's Tucson Memorial Address." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 17/3 (2014): 455-476. Arnett, R. C. (2011). Civic rhetoric—Meeting the communal interplay of the provincial and the cosmopolitan: Barack Obama’s Notre Dame Speech, May 17, 2009. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 631–672.

Coe, K., & Reitzes, M. (2010). Obama on the stump: Features and determinants of a rhetorical approach. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 40, 391-413.

Dilliplane, S. (2012). Race, rhetoric, and running for president: Unpacking the significance of Barack obama’s “A More Perfect Union” speech. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 15, 127-152.

Frank, D. A., (2011). Obama’s rhetorical signature: Cosmopolitan Civil Religion in the Presidential Inaugural Address, January 20, 2009. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 605–630.

Frank, D. A., (2009). The prophetic voice and the face of the other in Barack Obama’s “A More Perfect Union” address, March 18, 2008. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 12, 167-194.

Frank, D. A., & McPhail, M. L. (2005). Barack Obama's address to the 2004 Democratic National Convention: Trauma, compromise, consilience, and the (im)possibility of racial reconciliation. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 8, 571-594.

Garvey, T. (2011). The Obama administration's evolving approach to the signing statement. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 393-407.

Gunn, J. (2010). On speech and public release. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 13, 1–42. (Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama).

Kephart, J. M., III, & Rafferty, S. F. (2009). "Yes We Can"" Rhizomic rheotrical agency in hyper-moidern campaign ecologies. Argumentation and Advocacy, 46, 6-20.

Ivie, R. L. (2011). Obama at West Point: A study in ambiguity of purpose. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 727–760.

McPhail, M. L, & McPhail, R. (2011). (E)raced men: Complicity and responsibility in the rhetorics of Barack Obama. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 673–692.

Rowland, R. C. (2011). Barack Obama and the revitalization of public reason. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 693–726.

Rowland, R. C., & Jones, J. M. (2011). One dream: Barack Obama, race, and the American Dream. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 125–154.

Rowland, R. C., & Jones, J. (2007). Recasting the American Dream and American politics: Barack Obama's keynote address to the 2004 Democratic National Convention. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 93, 425-448.

Sparks, A. (2009). Minstrel plitics or "He speaks too well:" Rhetoric, race, and resistance in the 2008 presidential campaign. Argumentation and Advocacy, 46, 21-38.

Terrill, R. E. (2011). An uneasy peace: Barack Obama’s Nobel Peace Prize lecture. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 761–780.

Terrill, Robert E.. "Unity and Duality in Barack Obama's 'A More Perfect Union'." Quarterly Journal of Speech 95/4 (2009): 363-386.

Franklin Pierce, 1853-1857 Edit

Hartnett, S. J. (2008). Franklin Pierce and the Exuberant Hauture of an age of extremes: A love song for America in six movements. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 106-165). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Polk, James K., 1845-1849Edit

Campbell, K. K. (2008). James Knox Polk: The first imperial president? In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 83-105). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Greenstein, F. I. (2010). The policy-driven leadership of James K. Polk: Making the most of a weak presidency. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 40, 725-533.

Reagan, Ronald, 1981-1989Edit

Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum. Archives .  Web. 10 Jun 2014.

Abshire, D. M. (2005). Saving the Reagan presidency: Trust is the coin of the realm. College Station, TX: Texas A&M Press.

Aden, R. C. "Entrapment and Escape: Inventional Metaphors in Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric. Southern Communication Journal 54 (1989): 384-401.

Birdsell, David S. "Ronald Reagan on Lebanon and Grenada: Flexibilty and Interpretation in the Application of Kenneth Burke's Pentad." Quarterly Journal of Speech 73 (1987): 267-279.

Bormann, Earnest G. "A Fantasy Theme Analysis of the Television Coverage of the Hostage Release and the Reagan Inaugural." Quarterly Journal of Speech 68 (1982): 133-145.

Bostdorff, D. M., & Goldzwig, S. R. (2005). History, collective memory, and the appropriation of Martin Luther King, Jr.: Reagan's rhetorical legacy. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 35, 661-690.

Crable, Richard E., and Steven L. Vibbert. "Argumentative Stance and Political Faith Healing: 'The Dream Will Come True." Quarterly Journal of Speech 69 (1983): 290-301.

Dallek, Robert. Ronald Reagan: The Politics of Symbolism. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard UP, 1999.

Depoe, S. P. (1989). Selling the Shuttle: Legitimation strategies in presidential rhetoric concerning America’s Space Shuttle Mission. In Spheres of Argument: Conference Proceedings -- National Communication Association/American Forensic Association (pp. 392-399).

Fine, Marlene G., and Leslie K. Davis. "The 1980 Republican Primary Debates: The Transformation of Actor to Scene." Quarterly Journal of Speech 69 (1983): 290-301.

Fisher, Walter R. "Romantic Democracy, Ronald Reagan, and Presidential Heroes." Western Journal of Communication 46 (1982): 299-301.

Gold, Ellen Reid. "Ronald Reagan and the Oral Tradition." Central States Speech Journal 39 (1988): 159-176.

Goodnight, G. Thomas. "Ronald Reagan's Re-formulation of the Rhetoric of War: Analysis of the 'Zero Option,' 'Evil Empire,' and 'Star Wars' Addresses." Quarterly Journal of Speech 72 (1986): 390-414.

Gouran, Dennis S., Randy Y. Hirokawa, and Amy E. Martz. "A Critical Analysis of Factors Related to Decisional Processes Involved in the Challenger Disaster." Central States Speech Journal 37 (1986): 119-135.

Gronbeck, Bruce. "Ronald Reagan's Enactment of the Presidency in His 1981 Inaugural Address." Form, Genre, and the Study of Political Discourse. Ed. Herbert Simons and Aram Aghazarian. Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Press, 1986. 226-245.

Han, L. C. (2006). New Strategies for an Old Medium: The Weekly Radio Addresses of Reagan and Clinton. Congress & the Presidency, 33, 25-45.

Hankins, Sarah Russell. "Archetypal Alloy: Reagan's Rhetorical Image." Central States Speech Journal 34 (1983): 33-43.

Hanska,Jan. Reagan’s Mythical America: Storytelling as Political Leadership.New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Print.    

Hart, Roderick P. "Of Genre, Computers, and the Reagan Inaugural." Form, Genre, and the Study of Political Discourse. Ed. Herbert Simons and Aram Aghazarian. Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Press, 1986. 278-300.

Hawdon, J. E. (2004). The role of presidential rhetoric in the creation of a moral panic: Reagan, Bush, and the War on Drugs. Deviant Behavior, 22, 419-445.

Heissey, D. R. (1986). Reagan and Mitter respond to international crisis: Creating versus transcending appearances. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 50, 325-335.

Holmes, Alison R. "Ronald Reagan: ConvictionPolitics and the Transatlantic Relationship." Journal of Transatlantic Studies 8.3 (2010): 257-67. America: History & Life. Pdf.

Ivie, Robert L. "Speaking "Common Sense" About the Soviet Threat: Reagan's Rhetorical Stance." Western Journal of Communication 48 (1984): 39-50. Johannesen, Richard L. "Ronald Reagan's Economic Jeremiad." Central States Speech Journal 37 (1986): 79-89.

Kiewe, Amos, and Davis W. Houck. A Shining City on a Hill: Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric, 1951-1989. Greenwood, 1991.

Klope, David C. "Defusing a Foreign Policy Crisis: Myth and Victimage in Reagan's 1983 Lebanon/Grenada address." Western Journal of Communication 50 (1986): 336-349.

Lewis, William F. "Telling America's Story: Narrative Form and the Reagan Presidency." Quarterly Journal of Speech 73 (1987): 281-293.

Lule, Jack. "The Political Use of Victims: The Shaping of the Challenger Disaster." Political Communication and Persuasion 7 (1989): 115-128.

Mackey-Kallis, Susan, and Dan F. Hahn. "Questions of Public Will and Private Action: The Power of the Negative in the Reagans' 'Just Say No' Morality Campaign." Communication Quarterly 39 (1991): 1-17.

Medhurst, Martin J. "Postponing the Social Agenda: Reagan's Strategy and Tactics." Western Journal of Communication 48 (1984): 262-276.

Meyer, J. "Ronald Reagan and Humor: A Politician's Velvet Weapon." Communication Studies 41 (1990): 76-88.

Mister, Steven M. "Reagan's Challenger Tribute: Combining Generic Constraints and Situational Demands." Central States Speech Journal 37 (1986): 158-165.

Moore, Mark P. "Reagan's Quest for Freedom in the 1987 State of the Union Address." Western Journal of Communication 53 (1989): 52-65.

Muir, William Ker. The Bully Pulpit: The Presidential Leadership of Ronald Reagan. San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies, 1992.

Olson, Kathryn M. "The Controversy Over President Reagan's Visit to Bitburg: Strategies of Definition and Redefinition." Quarterly Journal of Speech 75 (1989): 129-151.

Perez, T. L., & Dionisopoulos, G. N. (1995). Presidential silence, C. Everett Koop, and the Surgeon General's Report on AIDS. Communication Studies, 4, 18-33.

Prasch, Allison M. "Reagan At Pointe Du Hoc: Deictic Epideictic And The Persuasive Power Of "Bringing Before The Eyes." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 18.2 (2015): 247-275. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Pdf file.

Preston, Thomas C. "Reagan's "New Beginning," Is It the "New Deal of the Eighties?" Southern Journal of Speech Communication 49 (1984): 198-211.

Ritter, Kurt W. "Ronald Reagan and "The Speech": The Rhetoric of Public Relations Politics." Western Journal of Communication 32 (1968): 50-58.

---. Ronald Reagan: The Great Communicator. Greenwood, 1992.

Rowland, Robert C., & Jones, J. (2001). Entelechial and reformative symbolic trajectories in contemporary conservatism: A case study of Reagan and Buchanan in Houston and beyond. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 4, 55-84.

Rowland, Robert C. "The Relationship Between the Public and the Technical Spheres of Argument: A Case Study of the Challenger Seven Disaster." Central States Speech Journal 37 (1986): 136-146.

Rushing, Janice. "Ronald Reagan's "Star Wars" Address: Mythic Containment of Technical Reasoning." Quarterly Journal of Speech 72 (1986): 415-433.

Schleele, Henry Z. "Ronald Reagan's 1980 Acceptance Address: A Focus on American Values." Western Journal of Communication 48 (1984): 51-61.

Schonhardt-Bailey, C., Yager, E., & Lahlou, S. (2012). Yes, Ronald Reagan's rhetoric was unique—but statistically, how unique? Presidential Studies Quarterly, 42. 482–513.

Seeger, Matthew W. "The Challenger Tragedy and Search for Legitimacy." Central States Speech Journal 37 (1986): 147-157.

Shogan, C. J. (2006). Coolidge and Reagan: The rhetorical influence of Silent Cal on the Great Communicator. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 9, 215-234.

Sigelman, Lee, and Cynthia Whissell. "'The Great Communicator' and 'The Great Talker' on the Radio: Projecting Presidential Personas." Presidential Studies Quarterly 32/1 (2002): 137-146.

Smith, Craig Allen. "Mister Reagan's Neighborhood: Rhetoric and National Unity." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 52 (1987): 219-239.

---. "Ronald Reagan's Attempt to Build a National Majority." Central States Speech Journal 30 (1979): 98-102.

Stuckey, Mary. Getting Into the Game: The Pre-Presidential Rhetoric of Ronald Reagan. New York: Praeger, 1989.

---. Playing the Game: The Presidential Rhetoric of Ronald Reagan. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1990.

Stuckey, M. E. (2006). Slipping the Surly Bonds: Reagan’s Challenger address. College Station, TX: Texas A&M Press.

Winkler, C. (2007). Parallels in preemptive war rhetoric: Reagan on Libya, Bush 43 on Iraq. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 10, 303–334.

Woodward, Gary C. "Reagan as Roosevelt: The Elasticity of Pseudo-Populist Appeals." Central States Speech Journal 34 (1983): 44-58.

Zarefsky, David, Carol Miller-Tutzaur, and Frank E. Titzuar. "Reagan's Safety Net for the Truly Needy: The Rhetorical Uses of Definition." Central States Speech Journal 35 (1984): 113-119.

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 1933-1945.Edit

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum .  Web. 10 Jun 2014.

Aoki, K. (2006). A study of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's persuasive communication within the Fireside Chat: An analysis of language and style. Human Communication Research, , 72-81.

Benson, Thomas W. "Inaugurating Peace: Franklin D. Roosevelt's Last Speech." Communication Monographs 36 (1969): 138-147.

Braden, Waldo W., and Earnest Brandenburg. "Roosevelt's Fireside Chats." Communication Monographs 22 (1955): 290-302.

Brandenburg, Earnest. "The Preparation of Franklin D. Roosevelt's Speeches." Quarterly Journal of Speech 35 (1949): 214-221.

Brandenburg, Earnest, and Waldo W. Braden. "Franklin D. Roosevelt's Voice and Pronunciation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 38 (1952): 23-30.

Carson, Herbert L. "Reply to Infamy." Communication Quarterly 10 (1962): 5-6.

Couperthwaite, L. LeRoy. "Franklin D. Roosevelt at Harvard." Quarterly Journal of Speech 38 (1952): 37-41.

Crowell, Laura. "Building the "Four Freedoms" Speech." Communication Monographs 22 (1952): 266-283.

---. "Franklin D. Roosevelts's Audience Persuasion in the 1936 Campaign." Communication Monographs 17 (1952): 48-64.

---. "Roosevelt the Grotonian." Quarterly Journal of Speech 38 (1952): 31-3.

---. "Word Changes Introduced Ad Libitum in Five Speeches by Franklin Delano Roosevelt." Communication Monographs 25 (1952): 229-242.

Daughton, Suzanne M. "Metaphorical Transcendence: Images of the Holy War in Franklin Roosevelt's First Inaugural." Quarterly Journal of Speech 79.4 (1993): 427-46. Web. 1 May 2015.

Gravele, Jack G. "Franklin D. Roosevelt's Speech Preparation During His First National Campaign." Communication Monographs 31 (1964): 437-460.

Houck, Davis W. F. D. R. and Fear Itself: The First Inaugural Address. College Station: Texas A&M UP, 2002.

---. Rhetoric as Currency: Hoover, Roosevelt, and the Great Depression. College Station: Texas A&M UP, 2001.

Houck, Davis W., and Amos Kiewe. F. D. R.'s Body Politics: The Rhetoric of Disability. College Station: Texas A&M UP, 2003.

King, Robert D. "Franklin D. Roosevelt's Second Inaugural Address." Quarterly Journal of Speech 23 (1937): 439-444.

Oliver, Robert T. "The Speech that Established Roosevelt's Reputation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 31 (1945): 272-274.

Olson, Lester C. "Portraits in Praise of a People: A Rhetorical Analysis of Norman Rockwell's Icons in Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" Campaign." Quarterly Journal of Speech 69 (1983): 15-24.

Pederson, William D. "A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt". Chichester, West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. Print.

Reinsdorf, Walter D. ""This Nation Will Remain Neutral": Franklin D. Roosevelt Uses Inclusive and Exclusive Terms to Justifiy a Policy." Communication Quarterly 22 (1974): 17-21.

Roosevelt, Franklin D. Nothing to Fear: The Selected Addresses of Franklin Delano Roosevelt 1932-1945. Ed. B. D. Zevin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1946.

Ryan, Halford Ross. "Roosevelt's First Inaugural: A Study of Technique." Quarterly Journal of Speech 65 (1979): 137-149.

---. "Roosevelt's Fourth Inaugural Address: A Study of Its Composition." Quarterly Journal of Speech 67 (1979): 157-166.

---. Franklin D. Roosevelt's Rhetorical Presidency. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.

Schiffman, Joseph. "Observation on Roosevelt's Literary Style." Quarterly Journal of Speech 35 (1949): 222-226.

Shipman, Fred W. "The Roosevelt Papers." Quarterly Journal of Speech 34 (1948): 137-142.

Stelzner, Hermann G. "'War Message,' December 8, 1941: An Approach to Language." Communication Monographs 33 (1966): 419-437.

Valenzano, J. M. (2005). The hoofbeats of history: George W. Bush and FDR on the path to very different wars. In C. A. Williard (Ed.), Critical problems in argumentation (pp. 795-801). Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

Voelker, Charles H. "A Phonetic Study of Roosevelt." Quarterly Journal of Speech 22 (1936): 366-368.

Zelko, Harold P. "Franklin D. Roosevelt's International Speeches." Communication Monographs 16 (1949): 21-40.

---. "Franklin D. Roosevelt's Rhythm in Rhetorical Style." Quarterly Journal of Speech 28 (1942): 138-141.

Roosevelt, Theodore, 1901-1909.Edit

Buehler, D. O. "Permanence and Change in Theodore Roosevelt's Conservation Jeremiad." Western Journal of Communication 62 (1998): 439-258.

Dorsey, L. G. (1995). The Frontier Myth in presidential rhetoric: Theodore Roosevelt's campaign for conservation. Western Journal of Communication, 59, 1-19.

Dorsey, L. G. (1995). Theodore Roosevelt and corporate America, 1901-1909. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 25, 725-739.

Dorsey, L. G., & Harlow, R. M. (2003). "We Want Americans Pure and Simple": Theodore Roosevelt and the myth of Americanism. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 6, 55-78.

Friedenberg, Robert. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rhetoric of Militant Decency. Great American Orators 9. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Goodale, Greg.  "The Presidential Sound:  From Orotund to Instructional Speech, 1892-1912.  Quarterly Journal of Speech 96/2 (2010); 164-184.

Lucas, Stephen E. "The Man with the Muck Rake: A Reinterpretation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 452-462.

Neuzil, Mark. "Hearst, Roosevelt, and the Muckrake Speech of 1906: A New Perspective." Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 73 (1996): 29-39.

Paulson, J. (2002). Theodore Roosevelt and the rhetoric of citizenship: On tour in New England, 1902. Communication Quarterly, 50, 123-134.

Stucky, Mary.  "Establishing the Rhetorical Presidency through Presidential Rhetoric:  Theodore Roosevelt and the Brownsville Raid." Quarterly Journal of Speech 99/2 (2013): 287-309.

Walker, S. G., & Schafer, M. (2007). Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson as cultural icons of U.S. foreign policy. Political Psychology, 28, 747–776.

Zyskind, Harold. "A Case Study in Philosophic Rhetoric: Theodore Roosevelt." Philosophy and Rhetoric 1 (1968): 228-254.

Taylor, Zachary, 1849-July 1850Edit

Ellis, R. J., & Walker, A. (2007). Policy speech in the nineteenth century rhetorical presidency: The case of Zachary Taylor's 1849 tour. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 248-269.

Truman, Harry, 1945-1953.Edit

Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum . Web. 10 Jun 2014.

Bostdorff, D. M. (2008). Proclaiming the Truman Doctrine: The cold war call to arms. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Brands, H. W. (2002). Politics as performance art: The body english of Theodore Roosevelt. In L. G. Dorsey (Ed.), The presidency and rhetorical leadership (pp. 115-128). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Brembeck, Cole S. "Harry Truman at the Whistle Stops." Quarterly Journal of Speech 38 (1952): 42-50.

Conley, R. S. (2011). The harbinger of the unitary executive? An analysis of presidential signing Statements from Truman to Carter. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 546-569.

Edwards, J. A. (2009). Sanctioning foreign policy: The rhetorical use of President Harry Truman. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 39, 454-472.

Goldzwig, S. R. (2008). Truman's whistle-stop campaign. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Goldzwig, S. R. (1998). Civil rights and the cold war: A rhetorical history of the Truman administration's desegregation of the United States Army. In K. Turner (Ed.), Doing rhetorical history: Concepts and cases (pp. 143-69). Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama Press.

Hazel, Harry C., Jr. "Harry Truman: Practical Crusader." Today's Speech 22 (1974): 25-31.

Hensley, Carl Wayne. "Harry S. Truman: Fundamental Americanism in Foreign Policy Speechmaking, 1945-1946." Southern Speech Communication Journal 40 (1974): 180-190.

Hubbard, Bryan. Reassessing Truman, the Bomb, and Revisionism: The Burlesque Frame and Entelechy in the Decision to Use Atomic Weapons against Japan." Western Journal of Communication 62 (1998): 348-385.

Ivie, Robert L. "Literalizing the Metaphor of Soviet Savagery: President Truman's Plain Style." Southern Speech Communication Journal 51 (1985): 91-105.

McKerrow, Ray E. "Truman and Korea: Rhetoric in the Pursuit of Victory." Central States Speech Journal 28 (1977): 1-12.

Medhurst, Martin J. "Truman's Rhetorical Reticence, 1945-1947: An Interpretive Essay." Quarterly Journal of Speech 74 (1988): 52-70.

Newman, Robert P. Truman and the Hiroshima Cult. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 1995.

Randolph, Jennings. "The 1948 Presidential Campaign Speakers: Harry S. Truman." Quarterly Journal of Speech 34 (1948): 300-302.

---. "The 1948 Presidential Campaign: Truman--A Winning Speaker." Quarterly Journal of Speech 34 (1948): 421-424. Rosenfield, Lawrence W. "A Case Study in Speech Criticism: The Nixon-Truman Analog." Communication Monographs 35 (1968): 435-450.

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Tyler, John, 1841-1845 Edit

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Van Buren, Martin, 1837-1841 Edit

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Washington, George, 1789-1797.Edit

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Wilson, Woodrow, 1913-1921.Edit

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Dorsey, Leroy G. “Woodrow Wilson’s Fight for the League of Nations: A Reexamination.” Rhetoric & Public Affairs 2.1 (1999): 107-135. Communication & Mass Media Complete. PDF. 01 Mar. 2015.

Flanagan, Jason C. (2004). Woodrow Wilson's "Rhetorical Restructuring": The transformation of the American self and the construction of the German enemy. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 7, 115-148.

George, Alexander L., and Juliette L. George. Presidential Personality and Performance. Boulder, Colo.: Westview press, 1998. Print.

Kraig, Robert Alexander. Woodrow Wilson and the Lost World of the Oratorical Statesman. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2004.

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Stid, D. D. (1995). Woodrow Wilson and the rise of the rhetorical presidency. In The Brigance Forum: Leadership, rhetoric and the American presidency, (pp. 4-12). Crawfordsville, IN: Wabash College.

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