PLEASE NOTE this page has moved. It is being maintained and updated at .
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial Four Freedoms

Political Rhetoric:  Debates, Campaigns and ConventionsEdit

This bibliography includes all things political / rhetorical that are not presidential. For presidential rhetoric bibliographies please go to Presidential Rhetoric General and Comparative Sources, or Presidential Rhetoric: Sources on Individual Presidents A to Z. It is especially strong on Debates, Campaigns and Conventions.  Presidential campaigns are included here, for candidates prior to becoming president, after which their rhetoric becomes officially presidential. When in doubt, cite in both places.


Atkinson, M. (1986). The 1983 election and the demise of live oratory. In I. Crewe & M. Harrop (Eds.), Political communications: The general election campaign of 1983 (pp. 38-55). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Atkinson, N. S (2011). Newsreels as domestic propaganda: Visual rhetoric at the dawn of the Cold War. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 69–100.

Banwart, M. C. (2006). Constructing images in presidenital primaries: An analysis of discourse stategies in the Dole Bush Iowa straw poll speeches. Argumentation and Adovcacy, 43, 65-78..

Bennett, W. L. (1977). The ritualistic and pragmatic basis of political campaign discourse. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 63, 219-238.

Bennett, W. L., & Edelman, M. (1985). Toward a new political narrative. Journal of Communication, 35, 156-171.

Benoit, W. L. (2006). Retrospective versus prospective statements and outcome of presidential elections. Journal of Communication, 56, 331-345.

Benoit, W. L. (2004). Election outcome and topic of political campaign attacks. Southern Communication Journal, 69, 348-355.

Benoit, W. L., (2004). Political party affiliation and presidential campaign discourse. Communication Quarterly, 52, 81-

Benoit, W. L. (2003). Presidential campaign discourse as a causal factor in election outcome. Western Journal of Communication. 67, 97-112.

Benoit, W. L. (1999). Acclaiming, attaching, and defending in Presidential nominating acceptance addresses, 1960-1996. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 85, 247-267.

Benoit, W. L., & Anderson, K. K. (1996). Blending politics and entertainment: Dan Quayle versus Murphy Brown. Southern Communication Journal, 62, 73-85.

Benoit, W. L., Blaney, J. R., Pier, P. M. (1998). Campaign '96: A functional analysis of acclaiming, attacking, and defending. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Benoit, W. L, Henson, J., Whalen, S. & Pier, P. M. (2008). “I am a Candidate for President”: A functional analysis of presidential announcement speeches, 1960-2004. Speaker & Gavel, 45, 3-18.

Bitzer, L. F. (1981). Political rhetoric. In D. D. Nimmo & K. R. Sanders (Eds.), Handbook of political communication (pp. 225-248). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Bohman, J. F. (1990). Communication, ideology, and democratic theory. American Political Science Review, 84, 93-109.

Bormann, E. G. (1981). The Eagleton affair: A fantasy theme analysis. In J. F. Cragan & D. C. Shields (Eds.), Applied communication research: A dramatistic approach. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Bormann, E. G., Swanson Kroll, B., Watters, K., & McFarland, D. (1984). Rhetorical visions of committed voters: Fantasy theme analysis of a large sample survey. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 1, 287-310.

Bostdorff, D. M. (1991). Vice-presidential comedy and the traditional female role: An examination of the rhetorical characteristics of the Vice Presidency. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 55, 1-22.

Boynton, G. R. (1989). Conversations about governing. In B. E. Gronbeck (Ed.), Spheres of argument: Proceedings of the sixth SCA/AFA Conference on Argumentation (pp. 167-174). Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.

Brennan, R. M. G., & Hahn, D. F. (1990). Listening for a president: A citizen's campaign methodology. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Brock, B. L. (1970). Spiro Agnew's Diversionary Rhetoric, Speaker and Gavel, 85-86.

Brown, R. E. (2005). Acting presidential: The dramaturgy of Bush versus Kerry. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 78-91.

Brower, D. C. (2004). Privacy, publicity, and propriety in congressional eulogies for representative Stewart B. McKinney (R-Conn.). Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 7, 191-214.

Brummett, B. (1980). Towards a theory of silence as a political strategy. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 66, 289-303.

Butler, J. R. (2002). Somalia and the imperial savage: Continuities in the rhetoric of war. Western Journal of Communication, 66, 1-24.

Carlson, A. C. (1989). The rhetoric of the Know-Nothing party: Nativism as a response to the rhetorical situation. Southern Communication Journal, 54, 364-383.

Chapel, G. (1996). Rhetorical synthesis and the discourse of Jack Kemp. Southern Communication Journal, 61, 342-362.

Chesebro, J. W., & Hamsher, C. D. (1974). The concession speech: The MacArthur-Agnew analog. Speaker and Gavel, 11, 39-51.

Clark, T. D. (1979). An analysis of recurrent features on contemporary American radical, liberal, and conservative political discourse. Southern States Speech Journal, 44, 399-422.

Clark, T. D. (1979). An exploration of generic aspects of contemporary American campaign orations. Central States Speech Journal, 30, 122-133.

Cline, R. J. (1985). The Cronkite-Ford interview at the 1980 Republican National Convention: A therapeutic analogue. Central States Speech Journal, 36, 92-104.

Cloud, D. L. (1998). The rhetoric of <Family Values>: Scapegoating, utopia, and the privatization of social responsibility. Western Journal of Communication, 62, 387-419.

Cohen, E. (2006). "Hanoi John" and "Chickenhawks": The reaffirmation and subversion of the Vietnam War hero in the 2004 presidential campaign. In P. Riley (Ed.) Engaging Argument (pp. 367-372). Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

Cohen, J. E., & Powell, R. J. (2005). Building public support from the grassroots up: The impact of presidential travel on state-level approval. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 35, 11-27.

Coleman, J. J., & Mana, P. (2007). Above the Fray? The use of party system references in presidential rhetoric. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 399–426.

Combs, J. E. (1980). Dimensions of political drama. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear.

Combs, J. E., & Nimmo, D. (1996). The comedy of democracy. Praeger.

Connolly, W. E. (1987). Politics and ambiguity. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Corcoran. P. E. (1990). Language and politics. In D. L. Swanson & D. Nimmo (Eds.), New directions in political communication: A resource book (pp. 51-85). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Corcoran, P. E. (1979). Political language and rhetoric. Austin: U. of Texas Press.

Covington , C. R. (1987).  'Staying private': Gaining congressional support for unpublicized presidential preferences on roll call votes. Journal of Politics, 49, 737–755.

Crable, R. E., & Vibbert, S. L. (1983). Argumentative stance and political faith healing: The dream will come true. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 69, 290-301.

Craig, S. C., & Hurley, T. L. (1984). Political rhetoric and the structure of political opinion: Some experimental findings. Western Political Quarterly, 37, 632-640.

Crockett, D. A. (2001). Prometheus chained: Communication and the constraints of history. In R. P, Hart and B. H. Sparrow (Eds.), Politics, discourse, and American society: New agendas (pp. 35-52). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Pub., Inc.

Dayan, D., & Katz, E. (1985). Television ceremonial events. Society, 22, 60-66.

De Landtsheer, C., & Feldman, O. (Eds.) (2000). Beyond speech and symbols: Explorations in the rhetoric of politicians and the media. Westport, CT: Praeger. [Mostly international]

Denton, R., & Goodnight, L. (1988). A communication model of presidential campaigns. New York: Praeger.

Dolan, F. M. (1994). Narratives, metaphysics, politics. Ithica, NY: Cornell University Press.

Dolan, F. M., & Dumm, T. L. (Eds.) (1993). Rhetorical republic: Governing representations in American politics. Amhurst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.

Dorsey, L. G. (1997). Sailing into the "Wondrous Now": The Myth of the American Navy's world cruise. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 83, 447-465.

Dowling, R. E. (1989). Print journalism as political communication: The Iran hostage crisis. Political Communication and Persuasion, 6, 129-150.

Eberly, R. A. (2002). Rhetoric and the anti-logos doughball: Teaching deliberating bodies the practices of participatory democracy. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 287-300.

Edelman, M. (2001). The politics of misinformation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Edelman, M. (1967). The symbolic uses of politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Edelman, M. (1971). Politics as symbolic action: Mass arousal and quiescence. New York: Academic Press.

Edelman, M. (1985). Political language and political reality. PS, Political Science and Politics, 8, 10-19.

Edelman, M. (1988). Constructing the political spectacle. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Edy, J. A. (2001). The presence of the past in public discourse. In R. P, Hart and B. H. Sparrow (Eds.), Politics, discourse, and American society: New agendas (pp. 53-70). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Pub., Inc.

Elder, C. D., & Cobb, R. W. (1983). The political uses of symbols. New York: Longman.

Elshtain, J. B. (1985). The relationship between political language and political reality. PS, Political Science and Politics, 8, 20-26.

Engels, J. (2009). Uncivil speech: Invective and the rhetorics of Democracy in the early republic. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 95, 311-334.

Fahey, A. C. (2007). French and feminine: Hegemonic masculinity and the emasculation of John Kerry in the 2004 presidential Race. Critical

Finnegan, C. A. (2005). Recognizing Lincoln: Image vernaculars in nineteenth-century visual culture. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 8, 31-57.

Fontana, B., Nederman, C., & Remer, G. (Eds.) (2004). Talking democracy: Historical perspectives on rhetoric and democracy. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Friedenberg, R. V. (2002). Notable speeches in contemporary presidential campaigns. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Fry, D. L., & Fry, V. H. (1986). Language use and political environments in media coverage of "Super Tuesday." Journalism Quarterly, 63, 719-727.

Goldzwig, S. (1985). James Watt's subversion of values: An analysis of rhetorical failure. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 50, 305-316.

Goodnight, G. T. (2010). The Metapolitics of the 2002 Iraq debate: Public policy and the network imaginary. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 13, 65–94.

Goodnight, G. T. (2006). Smoking guns, cherry-picking and stove-piping: On critical metaphors, discourse events and argumentation games. In P. Riley (Ed.) Engaging Argument (pp. 359-366) . Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

Goodnight, T. G., & Olson, K. M. (2006). Shared power, foreign policy, and Haiti 1994: Public memories of war and race. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 9, 601-634.

Gordon, D. B., & Crenshaw, C.(2004). Racial Apologies. In P. A. Sullivan, & S. R. Goldzwig (Eds.), New approaches to rhetoric (pp. 245-266). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Graham, G. J. (1989). Arenas of rhetorical power: Modes of persuasion and sublimation of multiple levels of political discourse. In B.E. Gronbeck (Ed.), Spheres of argument: Proceedings of the sixth SCA/AFA Conference on Argumentation (pp. 195-200). Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.

Green, D. (1987). Shaping political consciousness: The language of politics in America from McKinley to Reagan. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Gregg, R. B. (1994). Rhetorical strategies for a culture war: Abortion in the 1992 campaign. Communication Quarterly, 42, 229-243.

Gring-Pemble, L. M. (2003). Legislating a "normal, classic family": The rhetorical construction of families in American welfare policy. Political Communication, 20, 473-498.

Gronbeck, B. E. (2004). Rhetoric and politics. In L. L. Kaid (Ed.), Handbook of political communication research (pp. 135-154). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1995). Rhetoric, ethics, and telespectacles in the post-everything age. In R. H Brown (Ed), Postmodern representations (pp. 216-238). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1994). Electric rhetoric: The transformation of American political talk. The Brigance Forum. Crawfordsville, IN: Wabash College, Brigance Forum.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1984). Functional and dramaturgical themes of presidential campaigning. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 14, 468-499.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1985). The presidential campaign dramas of 1984. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 15, 386-393.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1990). Electric rhetoric: the forms of American political discourse (pp. 141-161). Vvichianna, 3rd Series, Vol. 1. Napoli: Loffredo Editore.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1990). Popular culture, media, and political communication. In D. L. Swanson & D. Nimmo (Eds.), New directions in political communication (pp. 185-222). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Gross, A. G. (1983). Analogy and intersubjectivity: Political oratory, scholarly argument and scientific reports. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 69, 37-46.

Gutgold, Nichola.  "Extolling while Strolling: Elizabeth Dole's Most Memorable Speech." Pennsylvania Communication Association Annual 58-59 (2002/2003): 29-43.

Hariman, R. (1995). Political style: The artistry of power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hartnett, S. J., & Mercieca, J. R. (2007). "A Discovered Dissembler Can Achieve Nothing Great"; or, four theses on the death of presidential rhetoric in an age of Empire. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 599–621.

Hartnett, S. J, & Stegrim. L. A. (2006). War Rhetorics: The National Security Strategy of the United States and President Bush's Globalization-through-Benevolent-Empire. South Atlantic Quarterly ,105, 175-

Harnet, S., & Ramsey, R. E. (1999). "A Plain Public Road": Evaluating arguments for democracy in a post-metaphysical world. Argumentation and Advocacy, 35, 95-114. (Patrick Buchanan is the focus)

Harold, C. L. (2001). The green virus: Purity and contamination in Ralph Nader's 2000 presidential campaign. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 4, 581-603.

Harpine, W. D. (2008). William McKinley and the emergence of the modern rhetorical presidency. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 307-328). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Harpine, W. D. (2005). From the front porch to the front page: McKinley and Bryan in the 1986 presidential campaign. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Harpine, W. D. (2001). Bryan's "Cross of Gold:" The rhetoric of polarization at the 1986 Democratic Convention. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 87, 291-304.

Harpine, W. D. (2000). Playing to the press in McKinley's front porch campaign: The early weeks of the nineteenth century pseudo-event. RSQ: Rhetoric Society Quarterly, 30, 73-90.

Harris, D. B. (1998). The rise of the public speakership. Political Science Quarterly, 113, 193-212. [Speaker of the House speaking]

Hart, R. P. (2008). Thinking harder about presidential discourse: The question of efficacy. In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 238-248). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Hart, R. P. (1994). Seducing America: How television charms the Modern Voter. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hart, R. P. (1987). Some footnotes on the role of public communication in incumbent politics. In M. L. McLaughlin (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 10 (pp. 117-145). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Hart, R. P. (1987). The sound of leadership: Presidential communication in the modern age. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hart, R. P. (1986). Contemporary scholarship in public address: A research editorial. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 50, 283-295.

Hart, R. P. (1986). The role of public communication in electoral politics. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Communication Association. Chicago, Illinois.

Hart, R. P. (1984). The language of the modern presidency. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 14, 249-246.Hart, R. P. (1984). Verbal style and the presidency. Orlando: Academic Press.

Hart, R. P., & Childers, J. P. (2005). The evolution of candidate Bush: A rhetorical analysis. American Behavioral Scientist, 49. 180-197.

Hart, R. P., & Childers J. P. (2004). Verbal certainty in American politics: An overview and extension. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 34, 516-535.

Hart, R. P., Jennings, W. P., & Dixson, M. J. (2003). Imagining the American people: Strategies for building political community, Journal of Communication, 53, 138-

Hart, R. P., Jerome, P., & McComb, K. (1984). Rhetorical features of newscasts about the president. Critical Studies in Mass communication, 1, 260-286.

Hartnett, S. J., & Merceica, J. R. (2006). "Has your courage rusted?": National security and the contested rhetorical norms of Republicanism in post-revolutionary America, 1798-1801. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 9, 79-112.

Hauser, G. A., & Benoit-Barne, C. (2002). Reflections on rhetoric, deliberative democracy, civil society, and trust. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 261-275.

Hedges, J., & Hasian, M. Jr., (2005). Campaign posturing, military decision making, and the administrative amnesias. Rhetoric & Public Affairs; 8, 694-698.

Henry, D. (1994). Toward "a search for remedy": On political discourse in a democratic culture. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 80, 91-128.

Hicks, D. (2002). The promise(s) of deliberative democracy. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 223-260.

Hoffman, G. (2005). The rhetoric of Bush's speeches: Purr words and snarl words. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 62, 198-201.

Hoffman, K. S. (2002). "Going Public" in the nineteenth century: Grover Cleveland's repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 57-77.

Hogan, J. M. (2006). Woodrow Wilson’s Western Tour: Rhetoric, public opinion, and the League of Nations. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Hogan, J. M., & Williams, G. (2004). The rusticity and religiosity of Huey P. Long. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 7, 149-172.

Holloway, R. L. (1994). A time for change in American politics: The issue of the 1992 presidential campaign. In R. E. Denton (Ed.), The 1992 presidential campaign: A communication perspective (pp. 129-167). Westport CT: Praeger.

Hostetler, M. J. (2002). Washington's Farewell Address: Distance as bane and blessing. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 3, 393-407.

Hostetler, M. J. (1998). Gov. Al Smith confronts the Catholic question: The rhetorical legacy of the 1928 campaign. Communication Quarterly, 46, 12-24.

Hostetler, M. J. (1997). The enigmatic ends of rhetoric: Churchill�s Fulton Address as great art and failed persuasion. Quarterly Journal of Speech,, 83, 416-428.

Houck, D. W. (2002). FDR and Fear Itself: The First Inaugural address. College Station, TX: Texas A&M Univetsity Press.

Houck, D. W. (2001). Rhetoric as currency: Hoover, Roosevelt, and the Great Depression. College Station, TX: Texas A&M Univetsity Press.

Houck, D. W. (1997). Presidential rhetoric without qualifiers: Beyond the modern and rhetorical divide. Southern Communication Journal, 62,257-261. [Book review]

Houck, D. W., & Kiewe, A. (2003). FDR's Body Politics: The Rhetoric of Disability. College Station, TX: Texas A&M Univetsity Press.

Howell, B. W. (2003). Ronald Reagan's address at Moscow State University: A rhetoric of conciliation and subversion. Southern Communication Journal, 68, 107-120

Hubbard, B. (1998). Reassessing Truman, the bomb, and revisionism: The burlesque frame and entelechy in the decision to use atomic weapons against Japan. Western Journal of Communication, 62, 348-385.

Hurst, S. (2004). The rhetorical strategy of George H. W. Bush during the Persian Gulf Crisis 1990–91: How to help lose a war you won. Political Studies, 52, 376-392.

Huspek, M, & Kendall, K. E. (1991). On withholding political voice: An analysis of the political vocabulary of a 'non-political' speech community. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 77, 1-18.

Huxman, S. S., & Linkugel, W. A. (1988). Accusations and apologies from a general, a senator, and a priest. In H. R. Ryan (Ed.), Oratorical encounters: Selected studies and sources of twentieth-century political accusations and apologies (pp. 29-52). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Isaacson, C. (2000). My Governor Can Whup Your Governor's A..: Jesse Ventura Wrestles the Local Press to A No Decision - A Rhetorical Analysis of the Playboy Scandal. American Communication Journal, 4,

Ivie, R. L. (2007). Fighting terror by rite of redemption and reconciliation. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 10, 221-249.

Ivie, R. L., (2007). Shadows of democracy in presidential rhetoric: An introduction to the special issue. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 577–579.

Ivie, R. L., (2005). Democracy and America's War on Teror. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Ivie, R. L. (2004). The rhetoric of Bush's "War" on evil. KB Journal, 1,

Ivie, R. L., (2002). Rhetorical deliberation and democratic politics in the here and now. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 277-285.

Ivie, R. L. (2002). Distempered Demos: Myth, Metaphor, and U.S. Political Culture, in W. F. Hansen & G A. Schrempp (Eds.), Myth: A New Symposium, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Ivie, R. L.. (1999). Fire, Flood, and Red Fever: Motivating Metaphors of Global Emergency in the Truman Doctrine Speech, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 29, 570-591.

Ivie, R. L. (1998). Democratic Deliberation in a Rhetorical Republic, Quarterly Journal of Speech , 84 , 491-505.

Ivie, R. L. (1996). Tragic fear and the rhetorical presidency: Combating evil in the Persian Gulf. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Beyond the rhetorical presidency (pp. 153-178). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Ivie, R. L. (1980). Images of savagery of American justifications of war. Communication Monographs, 47, 279-294.

Ivie, R. L. (1974). Presidential motives for war. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 60, 337-345.

Ivie, R. L., & Giner, O. (2009). More good, less evil: Contesting the mythos of national insecurity in the 2008 presidential primaries. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 12, 279-301.

Ivie, R. L., & Giner, O. (2007). Hunting the Devil: Democracy's rhetorical impulse to war. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 580–598.

Ivie, R. L., & Giner, O. (2009).Genealogy of myth in presidential rhetoric. Sourcebook for political communication research:  Methods, measures, and analytical techniques. In E. P. Bucy and R. L. Holbert (Eds.). Routledge.

Jacobs, L. R., Page, B. I., Burns, M. McAvoy, G. & Oster, E. (2003). What presidents talk about: The Nixon case. Presidential Studies Quarterly; 33, 751-771.

Janiewski, D. E. (2011). Eisenhower's paradoxical relationship with the “Military-Industrial Complex”. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 667–692.

Jamieson, K. H., (1988). Eloquence in an electronic age: The transformation of political speechmaking. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jardine, M. (1998). Speech and political practice: Recovering the place of human responsibility. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Jarvis, S. E. (2004). Partisan patterns in presidential campaign speeches, 1948-2000. Communication Quarterly, 52, 403-419.

Jarvis, S. E., & Jones E. B. (2005). Party labesl in presidential acceptance addresses: 1948-2000. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 29-48). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Jefferson, B. S. (1997). The Truman administration: Rhetorically trapped by anti-Communist popular press. Speaker and Gavel, 34, 64-80.

Jensen, R. J. (2007). Reagan at Bergen-Belsen and Bitburg. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Jerit, J. (2004). Survival of the fittest: Rhetoric during the course of an election campaign. Political Psychology, 25, 563-576.

Jerit. J. (2002). The nature and dynamic of political rhetoric. Dissertation Abstracts International, DAI-A 3/02. p.737.

Johnson, Janet. "Twitter Bites and Romney: Examining the Rhetorical Situation of the 2012 Presidential Election in 140 Characters." Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric 2 (2012): 54-64.

Jones, J., & Rowland, R. (2005). A covenant-affirming jeremiad: The post-presidential ideological appeals of Ronald Reagan. Communication Studies , 56, 157-174.

Jordan, J. W. (2003). Kennedy's romantic moon and its rhetorical legacy for space exploration. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6, 209-232.

Kalb, D., Peters, G., & Wooley, J. T. (2006) State of the Union: Presidential Rhetoric from Woodrow Wilson to George W. Bush. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Kaplan, L. S. (2002). Jefferson vs. Napoleon: The limits of rhetoric. In L. G. Dorsey (Ed.), The presidency and rhetorical leadership (pp. 95-114). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Kassop, N. (2005). Not going public: George W. Bush and the presidential records act. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 255-278). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Kaylor, B. T. (2011). Presidential campaign rhetoric in an age of confessional politics. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books

Keith, W. M. (2007). Democracy as discusssion: Civic education and the American forum movment. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Kelley, C. E. (2007). Post-9/11 American presidential rhetoric: A study in protofacist discourse. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Kelley, C. E. (1987). The 1984 campaign rhetoric of representative George Hansen: A pentadic analysis. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 51, 204-217.

Kelley, C., & Troester, R. (1992). The 1988 campaign rhetoric of George Bush: Some demagogic strategies. Journal of Communication and Media Arts, 1, 65-80.

Kelley, C. S., & Marshall, B. W. (2008). The last word: Presidential power and the role of signing statements. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 38, 248–267.

Kellner, D. (2007). Bushspeak and the politics of lying: Presidential rhetoric in the "War on Terror". Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 622–645.

Kendall, K. E. (1993). Public speaking in the presidential primaries through media eyes. American Behavioral Scientist, 37, 240-251.

Kendall, K. E., & Trent, J. S. (1989). Presidential surfacing in the New Hampshire primary. Political Communication Review, 14, 1-29.

Kennedy, K. A., & Benoit, W. L. (1997). The Newt Gringrich book deal controversy: Self defense rhetoric. Southern Communication Journal, 62, 197-216.

Kertzer, D. I. (1988). Ritual, politics, and power. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Kiewe, A. (2007). FDR's first fireside chat: : Public confidence and the banking crisis. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Kiewe, A. (Ed.) (1994). The modern presidency and crisis rhetoric. Westport, CT: Praeger.

King, R. L. (1985). Transforming scandal into tragedy: A rhetoric of political apology. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 71, 289-301.

Kitchens, J. T., & Powell, L. (1985). A critical analysis of NCPAC's strategies in key 1980 races: A third party negative campaign. Southern States Speech Journal, 51, 208-228.

Klumpp, J. F.& Lukehart, J. K. (1978). The pardoning of Richard Nixon: A failure in motivational strategy. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 42, 116-123.

Knepprath, E. & Clevenger, T., Jr. (1965). Reasoned discourse and motive appeals in selected political Speeches. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 51, 152-156.

Koesten, J., & Rowland, R. C. (2004). The rhetoric of atonement Communication Studies, 55, 68-87.

Kraig, R. A. (2004). Woodrow Wilson and the lost world of the oratorical stateman. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Kraig, R. A. (2002). The tragic Science: The Uses of Jimmy Carter in Foreign Policy Realism. Rhetoric & Public Affair, 5, 1-30.

Kapur, N. (2011). William McKinley's values and the origins of the Spanish-American War: A reinterpretation. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 18-38.

Kuypers, J. A. (1997). Presidential crisis rhetoric and the press in the Post-Cold war world. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Lakoff, R. T. (2001). The rhetoric of the extraordinary moment: The concession and acceptance speeches of Al Gore and George W. Bush in the 2000 presidential election. Pragmatics: Quarterly Publication of the International Pragmatics Association. 309-27.

Larcey, M. (2008). Talking without speaking, and other curiosities. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 18-28). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Larcey, M. (2002). President's and the people: The partisan story of going public. College Station, TX: Texas A&M Press.

Larcey, M. (1989). The presidential newspaper: The forgotten way of going public. In R. J. Ellis (Ed.) Speaking to the people: The rhetorical presidency in historical perspective (pp. 66-86). Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Lawler, P.A., & Schaefer, R. M. (2005). American political rhetoric: A reader (5th Ed). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Lawrence, W. Y., & Carpenter, R.H. (2007). On the conversational style of Ronald Reagan “A – E = <Gc” Revisited and Reassessed. Speaker and Gavel, 44 1-12.

Lee, M. J. (2006). The populist chameleon: The people's party, Huey Ling, Geroge Wallace and the populist argumetative frame. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 92, 355-378.

Lee, R. (1994). Images of civic virtue in the new political rhetoric. In A. H. Miller & B. E. Gronbeck (Eds.), Presidential campaigning and America's self images (pp. 60-81). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Lee, R. (1986). The new populist campaign for economic democracy: A rhetorical exploration. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 72, 274-289.

Lee, R. (1988). Moralizing and ideologizing: An analysis of political illocutions. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 52, 291-307.

Lee, R. (1989). The featuring of will in history: A rhetorical exploration of Richard Nixon's post-presidential writings. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 75, 453-466.

Lee, R. (1995). Humility and the political servant: Jimmy Carter's Post-Presidential rhetoric of virtue and power. Southern Communication Journal, 60, 120-131.

Leff, M. (2008). Grover Cleveland and the nonrhetorical presidency. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 289-306). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Leff, M. (1988). Dimensions of temporality in Lincoln's second inaugural. Communication Reports, 1, 26-31.

Leff, M. C., & Mohrmann, G. P. (1974). Lincoln at Cooper Union: A rhetorical analysis of the text. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 60, 346-358 .

Len-Rios, M. E., & Benoit, W. L. (2004). Gary Condit's image repair strategies: Determined denial and differentiation. Public Relations Review, 30, 95-

Levasseur, D. G., & Dean, K. W. (1996). The Dole humor myth and the risks of recontextualizing rhetoric. Southern Communication Journal, 62, 56-72.

Lewis, D. (1997). The two rhetorical presidencies: An analysis of televised presidential speeches, 1947-1991. American Politics Quarterly, 25, 380-395.

Lim, E. T., (2008). The anti-intellectual presidency: The decline of presidential rhetoric from George Washington to George W. Bush. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Lim, E. T. (2003). The lion and the lamb: De-mythologizing Franklin Roosevelt's Fireside Chats. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6, 437-464.

Lim, E. T. (2002). Five trends in presidential rhetoric: An analysis of rhetoric from George Washington to Bill Clinton. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 32, 328--366.

Lockett John, S., Domke, D., Coe, K., & Graham, E. S. (2007). Going public, crisis after crisis: The Bush administration and the press from September 11 to Saddam. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 10, 195-219.

Louden, A. (2008). Presidential communication (2008). In L. L. Kaid and C. Holtz-Bacha (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Political Communication, Vol. 2 (pp. 631-639). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lucas, S. E. (2008). Present at the founding: The rhetorical presidency in historical prespective. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 35-41). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Lucas, S. E. (2002). George Washington and the rhetoric of presidential leadership. In L. G. Dorsey (Ed.), The presidency and rhetorical leadership (pp. 42-72). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Lucas, S. E. (1986). Genre criticism and historical context: The case of George Washington's first inaugural address. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 51, 354-370.

Lucus, S. E. (1976). Portraits of rebellion: Rhetoric and rebellion in Phildelphia, 1975-76. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Maddux, K. (2011). The Foursquare Gospel of Aimee Semple McPherson, Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 291–326.

Madsen, A. (1995). The synecdochic and metonymic processes and the political image construct. Argumentation and values: Proceedings of the Ninth SCA/AFA Conference on Argumentation (pp. 413-420). Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.

Makay, J. J. (1970). The rhetorical strategies of Governor George Wallace in the 1964 Maryland primary. Southern Speech Journal, 36, 164-175.

Maltese, J. A. (1995). Speaking out: The role of presidential rhetoric in the modern Supreme Court confirmation process. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 25, 447-

Marty, D. (2001). Arguing to win: The Florida vote recount. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate: Journal of the Cross Examination Debate Association, 22, 59-70.

Marvin, C. (1994). Fresh book, Public meat: Rituals of totem regeneration in the 1992 presidential race. Communication Research, 21, 264-292.

Mattson, K. (2002). Do Americans really want deliberative democracy? Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 327-329.

Mayer, J. D., & Rozell, M. J. (2005). A president Tranformed: Bush's pre- and post-September 11 rhetoric and image. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 207-223). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

McBath, J. H., & Fisher, W. R. (1969). Persuasion in presidential campaign communication. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 55, 17-25.

McCarthy, E. J. (1988). The rhetoric of contemporary politics. In K. W. Thompson (Ed.). Contemporary politics, rhetoric and discourse (pp. 35-58). New York: Univ. Press of America.

McDivitt, M. (1986). Ideological language and the press: Coverage of inaugural, State of the Union Address. Mass Communication Review, 13, 18-24.

McGee, M. C. (1985). Some issues in the rhetorical study of political communication. In K. R. Sanders, L. L. Kaid, & D. Nimmo (Eds.), Political Communication Yearbook-1984. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press.

McGuire, M. (1987). Ideology and myth as structurally different bases for political argumentation. Journal of the American Forensic Association, 24, 16-26.

McShane, J. M. (1988). Winthrop's 'City Upon a Hill'. America, 159, 194-199.

Meagher, M. E. (2006). John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan: The challenge of freedom. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 18, 1-24.

Medhurst, M. J. (2009). Mitt Romney: “Faith in America” and the dance of religion and politics in American culture. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 12, 195-221.

Medhurst, M. J (2008). Afterword: Questioning the rhetorical presidency construct. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 329-334). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Medhurst, M. J. (2008). Before the rhetorical presidency. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Medhurst, M. J. (2008). Was there a nineteenth-century rhetorical presidency? A debate revisited. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 1-16). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Medhurst, M. J. (2008). From retrospect to prospect: The study of presidential rhetoric, 1915-2005. In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) (2008), The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 3-27). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Medhurst, M. J. (2008). George W. Bush, pubic faith, and the culture war over same-sex marriage. In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 209-237). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Medhurst, M. J. (2001). The contemporary study of public address: Renewal, recovery, and reconfiguration. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 4, 495-511.

Medhurst, M. J. (2000). Text and context in the 1952 presidential campaign: Eisenhower's "I shall go to Korea" speech. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 30, 464-484.

Medhurst, M. J. (1997). Eisenhower and the crusade for freedom: The rhetorical origins of a Cold War campaign. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 27, 646-661.

Medhurst, M. J. (Ed.) (1994). Eisenhower's war of words: Rhetoric and leadership. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.

Medhurst, M. J. (1998). Writing speeches for Ronald Reagan: An interview with Tony Dolan. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 1, 245-256.

Medhurst, M. J. (Ed.) (1996). Beyond the rhetorical presidency. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Medhurst. M. J. (1996). A tale of two constructs: The rhetorical presidency versus presidential rhetoric. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Beyond the rhetorical presidency (pp. IX-XXV). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Medhurst, M. J. (1988). Truman's rhetorical reticence, 1945-1947: An interpretive essay. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 74, 52- 70.

Medhurst, M. J. (1987). Ghostwritten speeches: Ethics isn't the only lesson. Communication Education, 36, 241-249.

Merrelman, R. M. (1969). The dramaturgy of politics. Sociological Quarterly, 10, 216-241.

Milkis, S. M. (1989). Franklin D. Roosevelt, progressivism and the limits of limits of popular leadership. In R. J. Ellis (Ed.) Speaking to the people: The rhetorical presidency in historical perspective (pp. 182-210). Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Miller, J. L., & McKerrow, R. E. (2001). Political argument and emotion: An analysis of 2000 presidential campaign discourse. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate: Journal of the Cross Examination Debate Association, 22, 43-58.

Miller, L. W., & Sigelman, L. (1978). Is the audience the message? A note on LBJ's Vietnam statements. Public Opinion Quarterly, 42, 71-80.

Mitchell, G. R. (2006). Team B intelligence coups. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 92, 144-173.

Mitchell, G. R. (2000). Strategic deception: Rhetoric, science and politics in missile defense advocacy. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.

Moore, M. P. (2006). To execute capital punishment: The mortification and scapegoating of Illinois governor George Ryan. Western Journal of Communication , 70, 311-330.

Moore, M. P. (1997). Rhetorical subterfuge and "The Principle of Perfection," Part II: Bob Packwood�s senate resignation. Southern Communication Journal, 63, 37-55.

Moore, M. P. (1996). Rhetorical subterfuge and "The Principle of Perfection": Bob Packwood�s response to sexual misconduct charges. Western Journal of Communication, 60, 1-20.

Moore, M. P. (1991). Rhetorical crticism of political myth: From Goldwter legend to Reagan mystique. Communication Studies, 42, 295-308.

Morello, J. (1979). The public apology of a private matter: Representative Wayne Hays' address to Congress. Speaker and Gavel, 19-26.

Morris, E. (2006). Bush's 16 words: A toulminian perspective on the nuance and/or deception in the 2003 State of the Union Address. In P. Riley (Ed.) Engaging Argument (pp. 89-96) . Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

Muir, J. K, & Muir, S. A. (1991, November). Closing the gap between tropal theory and rhetorical practice: The presidential style of George Herbert Walker Bush. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Atlanta, GA.

Mumby, D. K., & Spitzack, C. (1983). Ideology and television news: A metaphoric analysis of political stories. Central States Speech Journal, 34, 162-171.

Murphy, C. (2008). The evolution of the modern rhetorical presidency: A critical response. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 38, 300-307.

Murphy, J. M. (2009). Political economy and rhetorical matter. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 12, 303-315.

Murphy, J. M. (2008). Power and authority in a postmodern presidency. In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.), The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 28-45). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Murphy, J. M. (2004). The language of the liberal consensus: John F. Kennedy, technical reason, and the "New Economics" at Yale University. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 90, 133-162.

Murphy, J. M. (2003). "Our Mission and our Moment": George W. Bush and September 11th. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 6, 607-632.

Murphy, J. M. (1998). Knowing the president: The dialogic evolution of the campaign history. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 84, 23-40.

Murphy, J. M. (1997). Inventing authority: Bill Clinton, Marlin Luther King, Jr., and the orchestration of rhetorical traditions. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 83, 71-89.

Murphy, J. M. (1994). Civic republicanism in the modern age: Adlai Stevenson in the 1952 presidential campaign. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 80, 313-328.

Murphy, J. M. (1992). Epideictic and deloberative strategies in oppositoin to war: The paradox of honor and expediency. Communicatoin Studies, 42< 65-78.

Murphy, J. M. (1989). Comic strategies and the American covenant. Communication Studies, 40, 266-280.

Nelson, J. (2003). Gay-rights issues in contemporary American: The use of argument and the "Marriage" ideograph in 2000 presidential contenders Al gore and Bill Bradley. Carolinas Communication Annual, 19, 68-83.

Nelson, J. S.(2003). Conspiracy as a Hollywood trope for system. Political Communication, 20, 499-503.

Nelson, J. S. (1987). Stories of science and politics: Some rhetorics of political research. In J. S. Nelson, A. Megill, & D. N. McCloskey (Eds.), The Rhetoric of the human Sciences: Language and argument in scholarship and public affairs (pp. 198-220). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Nelson, J. S. (1989). Political mythmaking for post-moderns. In B. E. Gronbeck (Ed.), Spheres of argument: Proceedings of the sixth SCA/AFA Conference on Argumentation (pp. 175-183). Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.

Nicholes, D. (1998). A marriage made in Philadelphia: The constitution and the rhetorical presidency. In R. J. Ellis (Ed.) Speaking to the people: The rhetorical presidency in historical perspective (pp. 16-34). Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Nimmo, D. (1985). Elections as ritual drama. Society, 22, 31-38.

Nimmo, D., & Combs, J. (1980). Subliminal politics: Myths and mythmakers in America. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Noon, D. H. (2004). Operation enduring analogy: World War II, the war on terror, and the uses of historical memory. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 7, 339-366.

Oberg, B. B. (2005). Jefferson's call for nationhood: The first inaugural address. The American Historical Review, 110, 785.

O'Gorman, N. (2008). Eisenhower andt eh American sublime. Quartery Journal of Speech, 94, 44-72.

O'Leary, S., & McFarland, M. (1989). The political use of mythic discourse: Prophetic interpretations in Pat Robertson's presidential campaign. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 75, 433-452.

Oliver, W. M. (2003). Presidential rhetoric on crime and public opinion. Criminal Justice Review, 23, 139-160.

Olson, K. M. (2004). Democratic enlargement's value hierarchy and rhetorical forms: An analysis of Clinton's use of a post-cold war symbolic frame to justify military interventions. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 34, 307-340.

Olson, K. M. (1989). The controversy over president Reagan's visit to Bitburg: Strategies of definition and redefinition. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 75, 129-151.

Palczewski, C. H., & Williams, D. C. (2002). Identity, self-determination, and "None of the Above": An analysis of the 1998 Puerto Rican status vote. T. A. Hollihan (Ed.), Argument at century's end: Reflecting on the past and envisioning the future (pp. 386-393). Annandale, VA: National Communication Association.

Palmer, N. A. (2008). The Veterans' Bonus and the evolving presidency of Warren G. Harding. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 38, 39–60.

Panagopoulos, C. (2011). Polls and elections: Firing back: Out-party responses to presidential State of the Union Address: 1966-2006. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 604-617.

Parry-Giles, S. J. (2001). The rhetorical presidency, propaganda, and the cold war, 1945-1955. New York, Praeger.

Parry-Giles, T. (2008). To produce a "judicious choice: Presidential responses to the exercise of advice and consent by the U.S. Seanate on Supreme Court nominations. In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 99-129). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Parry-Giles, T., & Parry-Giles, S. J. (1997). Political scopophilia, presidential campaigning, and the intimacy of American politics. Communication Studies, 47, 191-205.

Parry-Giles, S. J., & Parry-Giles, T. (2000). Collective memory, political nostalgia, and the rhetorical presidency: Bill Clinton's commemoration of the March on Washington, August 28, 1998. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 86, 417-437.

Parry-Giles, S. J., & Parry-Giles, T. (1996). Gendered politics and presidential image construction: A reassessment of the "Feminine Style." Communication Monographs, 63, 337-353. (uses campaign films)

Pauley,G. E. (2007). LBJ's American promise: The 1965 Voting Rights address. College Station, c TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Pauley, G. E. (2001). The modern presidency and civil rights: Rhetoric on race from Roosevelt to Nixon. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Pauley, G. E. (1999). Documentary desegregation: A rhetorical analysis of Crisis: Behind a Presidential Commitment. Southern Communication Journal, 64, 123-142.

Pauley, G. E. (1998). Rhetoric and timeliness: An analysis of Lyndon B. Johnson's voting rights address. Western Journal of Communication, 62, 62-87.

Pauley, G. E. (1997). Presidential rhetoric and interest group politics: Lyndon B. Johnson and the Civil Right Act of 1964. Southern Communication Journal, 63, 1-19.

Pauley, J. L., II (1998). Reshaping public persona and the prophetic Ethos: Louis Farrakhan at the Million Man March. Western Journal of Communication, 62, 512-536.

Paulson, J. (2002). Theodore Roosevelt and the rhetoric of citizenship: On tour in New England, 1902. Communication Quarterly, 50, 123-134.

Peake, J. S.; & Eshbaugh-Soha, M. (2008). The agenda-setting impact of major presidential TV addresses. Political Communication, 25, 113-137.

Perez, T. L., & Dionisopoulos, G. N. (1995). Presidential silence, C. Everett Koop, and the Surgeon General�s Report on AIDS. Communication Studies, 4, 18-33.

Peterson, T. R. (2004). Green talk in the White House: The rhetorical presidency encounters ecology. college Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Pfau, Michael William (2006). Conventions of Deliberation? Convention Addresses and Deliberative Containment in the Second Party System.  Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 9/4, 635-654.

Pfau, M W. (2005). Evaluating conspiracy: Narrative, argument, and ideology in Lincoln's "House Divided" speech. Argumentation & Advocacy, 42, 57-73.

Pfau. M. W (2005). The political style of conspiracy: Chase, Sumner and Lincoln. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Pitt, C. A. (1968). Speech training as preparation for the U.S. Senate, Speaker and Gavel, 91-93.

President William Jefferson Clinton: Testing the Boundaries of Apologia in Public and Private Spheres, Editorial Forum (1999). American Communication Journal, 2.

Proctor, D. E. (1990). Enacting political culture: Rhetorical transformations of Liberty Weekend, 1986. New York; Praeger.

Quesinberry, A. A. (2005). First Ladies in waiting: The fight for rhetorical legitmacy on the 2004 campaign trail. In R. Denton (Ed.). The 2004 presidential campaign: A communiction perspective. Boulder, CO: Rowman and Littlefield.

Ragsdale, L. (1984). The politics of presidential speechmaking, 1949-1980, American Political Science Review, 78, 971-984.

Ragsdale, L. (1987). Presidential speechmaking and the public audience: Individual presidents and group attitudes. Journal of Politics, 49, 704-736.

Renz, M. A. (1987). The cabinet member as a representative of the president: The case of James Watt. Central States Speech Journal, 38, 94-110.

Report on the national task force on the presidency and deliberative democracy. (2008). In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 252-271). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Report on the national task force on presidential communication to congress. (2008). In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 272-292). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Report on the national task force on the presidency and public opinion. (2008). In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 293-316). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Report on the national task force on the ethical responsibilitiesw of presidential rhetoric. (2008). In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 317-339). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Report on the national task force on the theory and practice of the rhetorical presidency (2008). In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 340-354). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Report on the national task force on presidential rhetoric in times of crisis. (2008). In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 355-378). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Rex, J. (2011). The president's war agenda: A rhetorical view. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 93-118. (McKinley and Bush)

Reyes, G. Mitchell.  "The Swift Boat Veterans for Truth, the Politics of Realism, and the Manipulation of Vietnam Remembrance in the 2004 Presidential Election."  Rhetoric & Public Affairs  9/4 (2006): 571-600.

Rice, L. R. (2010). Statements of power: Presidential use of Statements of Administration policy and signing statements in the legislative process. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 40, 686- 707.

Riswold, C. D. (2004). A religious response veiled in a presidential address: A theological study of Bush's speech on 20 September 2001. Political Theology, 5, 39-46.

Ritter, K. & Howell, B. (2001). Ending the 2000 presidential election: Gore's concession speech and Bush's victory speech. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 2314-2330.

Robertson, A. W. (1995). The language of democracy: Political rhetoric in the United States and Britain: 1790-1900. Ithica, NY: Cornell University Press.

Robertson, T. (1995). Winning the peace: The “Three Pillars” of George Bush at Whitehall Palace. Speaker and Gavel, 42, 35-46.

Rosenfeld, L. W. (1968). A case study of speech criticism: The Nixon-Truman analog. Speech Monographs, 35, 435-450.

Rottinghaus, B. (2008). Opening the president's mailbag: The Nixon administration's rhetorical use of public opinion mail. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 38, 61–77.

Rottinghaus, B. (2008). Presidential leadership on foreigh policy, opinion polling, and the possible limits of "crafted talk". Political Communiation, 25, 138-157.

Roundtree, J. C., III (1995). The president as God, the recession as evil: Actus, status, and the president�s rhetorical bind in the 1992 election. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 81, 325-352.

Rowland, R. C. (2006). Campaign argument and the liberal public sphere: A case study of the process of developing messages in a congressional campaign. Argumentatoin & Adovacy, 42, 206-215.

Rowland, R. C., & Jones, J. (2007). Recasting the American Dream and American politics: Barack Obama's keynote address to the 2004 Democratic National Convention. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 93, 425-448.

Ryan, H. R. (Ed.) (1988). Oratorical encounters: Selected studies and sources of twentieth-century political accusations and apologies. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Schlesinger, R. (2008). White House ghosts: Presidents and their speechwriters. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Schultz, D. (2006). Moblizing museums: Visual arguments in the George H. W. Bush (41) Museum. In P. Riley (Ed.) Engaging Argument (pp. 243-249) . Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

Shepard, R. M. (2010). Explaining the Revolution: Vernacular Discourse and the Tipping Point in America’s 2006 Midterm Election. Communication and Theatre Association of Minnesota Journal, 37, 76-98.

Short, B. (1987). Comic book apologia: The "paranoid" rhetoric of Congressman George Hansen. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 51, 189-203.

Simons, H. W. (2007). From post-9/11 melodrama to quagmire in Iraq: A rhetorical history. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 10, 183-194.

Simons, H. W. (1995). Going meta: Definitions and Political Applications. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 80, 468-481.

Simons, H. W., & Aghazarian, A. A. (1986). Form, genre, and the study of political discourse. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.

Smith, C. A., & Smith, K. B. (1990). The rhetoric of political institutions. In D. L. Swanson & D. Nimmo (Eds.), New directions in political communication: A source book (pp. 225-254). Newbury Park, CA: Sage

Smith, C. R. (1999). The anti-war rhetoric of Daniel Webster. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 85, 1-16.

Smith, C. R. (1995). Dan Quayle on family values: Epideictic appeals in political campaigns. Southern Communication Journal, 60, 152-164.

Spielvogel, C. (2005). "You Know where I Stand”: Moral framing of the war on terrorism and the Iraq war in the 2004 presidential campaign. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 8, 549-569.

Sproule, J. M. (2002). Oratory, democracy, and the culture of participation. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 301-310.

Stewart, C., Smith, C., & Denton, R. E. (1989). Persuasion and social movements (2nd Ed) Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Stuckey, M. E. (2011). The Donner Party and the rhetoric of Westward expansion. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 229–260.

Terrill, R. E.,& Zarefsky, D. (1997). Consistency and change in the rhetoric of Stephen A. Douglas. Southern Communication Journal, 62, 179-196.

Thompson, K. W. (Ed.) (1988). Contemporary politics, Rhetoric and discourse, Vol. XX. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Tindell, J. H., & Medhurst, M. J. (1998). Rhetorical reduplication in MTV's Rock the Vote campaign. Communication Studies, 49, 18-28.

Tonn, M. B., & Endress, V. A. (2001). Looking under the hood and tinkering with voter cynicism: Ross Perot and "Perspective by Incongruity". Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 4, 281-308.

Trent, J. S., & Trent, J. D. (1974). The rhetoric of the challenger: George Stanley McGovern. Central State Speech Journal, 25, 11-18.

Troup, C. L. (1995). Cuomo at Notre Dame: Rhetoric without religion. Communication Quarterly, 43, 167-181.

Tulis, J. K. (2008). On the forms of rhetorical leadership. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 29-34). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Valley, D. B. (1988). A history and analysis of Democratic presidential nomination acceptance speeches to 1968. Lanham, MD: Univ. Press of American.

Valley, D. B. (1978). Significant characteristics of Democratic presidential nomination acceptance speeches. Central State Speech Journal, 25, 56-62.

Voth, B. (1994). The Smith 'heat': Alfred E. Smith and the "Catholic" Issue. Southern Communication Journal, 59, 333-341.

Weaver, R. A. (1982). Acknowledgement of victory and defeat: The reciprocal ritual. Central States Speech Journal, 33, 480-489.

Welch, J. F. (1990). Dramaturgy and political mystification: Political life in the United States. In D. Brissett & C. Edgley (Eds.), Life as theatre: A dramaturgical source book (2nd ed., ppp. 399-410). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Whaley, B. B., & Holloway, R. L. (1997). Rebuttal analogy in political communication: Argument and attack in sound bite. Political Communication, 14, 293-305.

Wiethoff, W. E. (1991). A Machiavellian perspective on the rhetorical criticism of political discourse. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 77, 309-326.

Williams, D. C. (1985). A reconstruction of (k)no(w)ledge: The mythic quest of Jesse Helms. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southern Speech Communication Association. Winston-Salem, NC.

Willyard, J., & Ritter, K. (2005). Election 2004 concession and victory speeches: The influence of genre, context, and speaker on addresses by presidential and vice presidential candidates. American Behavioral Scientist, 49. 488 - 509.

Wilson, J. (1990). Politically Speaking: The pragmatic analysis of political language. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.

Zarefsky, D. (2007). The language of democracy: Political rhetoric in the United States and Britain, 1790-1900. Rhetorica, 25, 439-432.

Zarefsky, D. (2003). Henry Clay and the election of 1844: The limits of a rhetoric of compromise. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 6, 79-96.

Zarefsky, D. (1992). Spectator politics and the revival of public argument. Communication Monographs, 59, 411-414.

Zietsma, D (2008). Building the Kingdom of God: Religious discourse, national identity, and the Good Neighbor Policy, 1930-1938. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 11, 179-214.