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Political Rhetoric:  Debates, Campaigns and ConventionsEdit

This bibliography includes all things political / rhetorical that are not presidential. For presidential rhetoric bibliographies please go to Presidential Rhetoric General and Comparative Sources, or Presidential Rhetoric: Sources on Individual Presidents A to Z. It is especially strong on Debates, Campaigns and Conventions.  Presidential campaigns are included here, for candidates prior to becoming president, after which their rhetoric becomes officially presidential. When in doubt, cite in both places.

SourcesEdit

Atkinson, M. (1986). The 1983 election and the demise of live oratory. In I. Crewe & M. Harrop (Eds.), Political communications: The general election campaign of 1983 (pp. 38-55). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Atkinson, N. S (2011). Newsreels as domestic propaganda: Visual rhetoric at the dawn of the Cold War. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 69–100.

Banwart, M. C. (2006). Constructing images in presidenital primaries: An analysis of discourse stategies in the Dole Bush Iowa straw poll speeches. Argumentation and Adovcacy, 43, 65-78..

Bennett, W. L. (1977). The ritualistic and pragmatic basis of political campaign discourse. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 63, 219-238.

Bennett, W. L., & Edelman, M. (1985). Toward a new political narrative. Journal of Communication, 35, 156-171.

Benoit, W. L. (2006). Retrospective versus prospective statements and outcome of presidential elections. Journal of Communication, 56, 331-345.

Benoit, W. L. (2004). Election outcome and topic of political campaign attacks. Southern Communication Journal, 69, 348-355.

Benoit, W. L., (2004). Political party affiliation and presidential campaign discourse. Communication Quarterly, 52, 81-

Benoit, W. L. (2003). Presidential campaign discourse as a causal factor in election outcome. Western Journal of Communication. 67, 97-112.

Benoit, W. L. (1999). Acclaiming, attaching, and defending in Presidential nominating acceptance addresses, 1960-1996. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 85, 247-267.

Benoit, W. L., & Anderson, K. K. (1996). Blending politics and entertainment: Dan Quayle versus Murphy Brown. Southern Communication Journal, 62, 73-85.

Benoit, W. L., Blaney, J. R., Pier, P. M. (1998). Campaign '96: A functional analysis of acclaiming, attacking, and defending. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Benoit, W. L, Henson, J., Whalen, S. & Pier, P. M. (2008). “I am a Candidate for President”: A functional analysis of presidential announcement speeches, 1960-2004. Speaker & Gavel, 45, 3-18.

Bitzer, L. F. (1981). Political rhetoric. In D. D. Nimmo & K. R. Sanders (Eds.), Handbook of political communication (pp. 225-248). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Bohman, J. F. (1990). Communication, ideology, and democratic theory. American Political Science Review, 84, 93-109.

Bormann, E. G. (1981). The Eagleton affair: A fantasy theme analysis. In J. F. Cragan & D. C. Shields (Eds.), Applied communication research: A dramatistic approach. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Bormann, E. G., Swanson Kroll, B., Watters, K., & McFarland, D. (1984). Rhetorical visions of committed voters: Fantasy theme analysis of a large sample survey. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 1, 287-310.

Bostdorff, D. M. (1991). Vice-presidential comedy and the traditional female role: An examination of the rhetorical characteristics of the Vice Presidency. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 55, 1-22.

Boynton, G. R. (1989). Conversations about governing. In B. E. Gronbeck (Ed.), Spheres of argument: Proceedings of the sixth SCA/AFA Conference on Argumentation (pp. 167-174). Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.

Brennan, R. M. G., & Hahn, D. F. (1990). Listening for a president: A citizen's campaign methodology. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Brock, B. L. (1970). Spiro Agnew's Diversionary Rhetoric, Speaker and Gavel, 85-86.

Brown, R. E. (2005). Acting presidential: The dramaturgy of Bush versus Kerry. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 78-91.

Brower, D. C. (2004). Privacy, publicity, and propriety in congressional eulogies for representative Stewart B. McKinney (R-Conn.). Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 7, 191-214.

Brummett, B. (1980). Towards a theory of silence as a political strategy. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 66, 289-303.

Butler, J. R. (2002). Somalia and the imperial savage: Continuities in the rhetoric of war. Western Journal of Communication, 66, 1-24.

Carlson, A. C. (1989). The rhetoric of the Know-Nothing party: Nativism as a response to the rhetorical situation. Southern Communication Journal, 54, 364-383.

Chapel, G. (1996). Rhetorical synthesis and the discourse of Jack Kemp. Southern Communication Journal, 61, 342-362.

Chesebro, J. W., & Hamsher, C. D. (1974). The concession speech: The MacArthur-Agnew analog. Speaker and Gavel, 11, 39-51.

Clark, T. D. (1979). An analysis of recurrent features on contemporary American radical, liberal, and conservative political discourse. Southern States Speech Journal, 44, 399-422.

Clark, T. D. (1979). An exploration of generic aspects of contemporary American campaign orations. Central States Speech Journal, 30, 122-133.

Cline, R. J. (1985). The Cronkite-Ford interview at the 1980 Republican National Convention: A therapeutic analogue. Central States Speech Journal, 36, 92-104.

Cloud, D. L. (1998). The rhetoric of <Family Values>: Scapegoating, utopia, and the privatization of social responsibility. Western Journal of Communication, 62, 387-419.

Cohen, E. (2006). "Hanoi John" and "Chickenhawks": The reaffirmation and subversion of the Vietnam War hero in the 2004 presidential campaign. In P. Riley (Ed.) Engaging Argument (pp. 367-372). Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

Cohen, J. E., & Powell, R. J. (2005). Building public support from the grassroots up: The impact of presidential travel on state-level approval. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 35, 11-27.

Coleman, J. J., & Mana, P. (2007). Above the Fray? The use of party system references in presidential rhetoric. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 399–426.

Combs, J. E. (1980). Dimensions of political drama. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear.

Combs, J. E., & Nimmo, D. (1996). The comedy of democracy. Praeger.

Connolly, W. E. (1987). Politics and ambiguity. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Corcoran. P. E. (1990). Language and politics. In D. L. Swanson & D. Nimmo (Eds.), New directions in political communication: A resource book (pp. 51-85). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Corcoran, P. E. (1979). Political language and rhetoric. Austin: U. of Texas Press.

Covington , C. R. (1987).  'Staying private': Gaining congressional support for unpublicized presidential preferences on roll call votes. Journal of Politics, 49, 737–755.

Crable, R. E., & Vibbert, S. L. (1983). Argumentative stance and political faith healing: The dream will come true. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 69, 290-301.

Craig, S. C., & Hurley, T. L. (1984). Political rhetoric and the structure of political opinion: Some experimental findings. Western Political Quarterly, 37, 632-640.

Crockett, D. A. (2001). Prometheus chained: Communication and the constraints of history. In R. P, Hart and B. H. Sparrow (Eds.), Politics, discourse, and American society: New agendas (pp. 35-52). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Pub., Inc.

Dayan, D., & Katz, E. (1985). Television ceremonial events. Society, 22, 60-66.

De Landtsheer, C., & Feldman, O. (Eds.) (2000). Beyond speech and symbols: Explorations in the rhetoric of politicians and the media. Westport, CT: Praeger. [Mostly international]

Denton, R., & Goodnight, L. (1988). A communication model of presidential campaigns. New York: Praeger.

Dolan, F. M. (1994). Narratives, metaphysics, politics. Ithica, NY: Cornell University Press.

Dolan, F. M., & Dumm, T. L. (Eds.) (1993). Rhetorical republic: Governing representations in American politics. Amhurst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.

Dorsey, L. G. (1997). Sailing into the "Wondrous Now": The Myth of the American Navy's world cruise. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 83, 447-465.

Dowling, R. E. (1989). Print journalism as political communication: The Iran hostage crisis. Political Communication and Persuasion, 6, 129-150.

Eberly, R. A. (2002). Rhetoric and the anti-logos doughball: Teaching deliberating bodies the practices of participatory democracy. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 287-300.

Edelman, M. (2001). The politics of misinformation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Edelman, M. (1967). The symbolic uses of politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Edelman, M. (1971). Politics as symbolic action: Mass arousal and quiescence. New York: Academic Press.

Edelman, M. (1985). Political language and political reality. PS, Political Science and Politics, 8, 10-19.

Edelman, M. (1988). Constructing the political spectacle. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Edy, J. A. (2001). The presence of the past in public discourse. In R. P, Hart and B. H. Sparrow (Eds.), Politics, discourse, and American society: New agendas (pp. 53-70). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Pub., Inc.

Elder, C. D., & Cobb, R. W. (1983). The political uses of symbols. New York: Longman.

Elshtain, J. B. (1985). The relationship between political language and political reality. PS, Political Science and Politics, 8, 20-26.

Engels, J. (2009). Uncivil speech: Invective and the rhetorics of Democracy in the early republic. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 95, 311-334.

Fahey, A. C. (2007). French and feminine: Hegemonic masculinity and the emasculation of John Kerry in the 2004 presidential Race. Critical

Finnegan, C. A. (2005). Recognizing Lincoln: Image vernaculars in nineteenth-century visual culture. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 8, 31-57.

Fontana, B., Nederman, C., & Remer, G. (Eds.) (2004). Talking democracy: Historical perspectives on rhetoric and democracy. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Friedenberg, R. V. (2002). Notable speeches in contemporary presidential campaigns. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Fry, D. L., & Fry, V. H. (1986). Language use and political environments in media coverage of "Super Tuesday." Journalism Quarterly, 63, 719-727.

Goldzwig, S. (1985). James Watt's subversion of values: An analysis of rhetorical failure. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 50, 305-316.

Goodnight, G. T. (2010). The Metapolitics of the 2002 Iraq debate: Public policy and the network imaginary. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 13, 65–94.

Goodnight, G. T. (2006). Smoking guns, cherry-picking and stove-piping: On critical metaphors, discourse events and argumentation games. In P. Riley (Ed.) Engaging Argument (pp. 359-366) . Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

Goodnight, T. G., & Olson, K. M. (2006). Shared power, foreign policy, and Haiti 1994: Public memories of war and race. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 9, 601-634.

Gordon, D. B., & Crenshaw, C.(2004). Racial Apologies. In P. A. Sullivan, & S. R. Goldzwig (Eds.), New approaches to rhetoric (pp. 245-266). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Graham, G. J. (1989). Arenas of rhetorical power: Modes of persuasion and sublimation of multiple levels of political discourse. In B.E. Gronbeck (Ed.), Spheres of argument: Proceedings of the sixth SCA/AFA Conference on Argumentation (pp. 195-200). Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.

Green, D. (1987). Shaping political consciousness: The language of politics in America from McKinley to Reagan. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Gregg, R. B. (1994). Rhetorical strategies for a culture war: Abortion in the 1992 campaign. Communication Quarterly, 42, 229-243.

Gring-Pemble, L. M. (2003). Legislating a "normal, classic family": The rhetorical construction of families in American welfare policy. Political Communication, 20, 473-498.

Gronbeck, B. E. (2004). Rhetoric and politics. In L. L. Kaid (Ed.), Handbook of political communication research (pp. 135-154). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1995). Rhetoric, ethics, and telespectacles in the post-everything age. In R. H Brown (Ed), Postmodern representations (pp. 216-238). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1994). Electric rhetoric: The transformation of American political talk. The Brigance Forum. Crawfordsville, IN: Wabash College, Brigance Forum.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1984). Functional and dramaturgical themes of presidential campaigning. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 14, 468-499.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1985). The presidential campaign dramas of 1984. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 15, 386-393.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1990). Electric rhetoric: the forms of American political discourse (pp. 141-161). Vvichianna, 3rd Series, Vol. 1. Napoli: Loffredo Editore.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1990). Popular culture, media, and political communication. In D. L. Swanson & D. Nimmo (Eds.), New directions in political communication (pp. 185-222). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Gross, A. G. (1983). Analogy and intersubjectivity: Political oratory, scholarly argument and scientific reports. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 69, 37-46.

Gutgold, Nichola.  "Extolling while Strolling: Elizabeth Dole's Most Memorable Speech." Pennsylvania Communication Association Annual 58-59 (2002/2003): 29-43.

Hariman, R. (1995). Political style: The artistry of power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hartnett, S. J., & Mercieca, J. R. (2007). "A Discovered Dissembler Can Achieve Nothing Great"; or, four theses on the death of presidential rhetoric in an age of Empire. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 599–621.

Hartnett, S. J, & Stegrim. L. A. (2006). War Rhetorics: The National Security Strategy of the United States and President Bush's Globalization-through-Benevolent-Empire. South Atlantic Quarterly ,105, 175-

Harnet, S., & Ramsey, R. E. (1999). "A Plain Public Road": Evaluating arguments for democracy in a post-metaphysical world. Argumentation and Advocacy, 35, 95-114. (Patrick Buchanan is the focus)

Harold, C. L. (2001). The green virus: Purity and contamination in Ralph Nader's 2000 presidential campaign. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 4, 581-603.

Harpine, W. D. (2008). William McKinley and the emergence of the modern rhetorical presidency. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 307-328). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Harpine, W. D. (2005). From the front porch to the front page: McKinley and Bryan in the 1986 presidential campaign. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Harpine, W. D. (2001). Bryan's "Cross of Gold:" The rhetoric of polarization at the 1986 Democratic Convention. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 87, 291-304.

Harpine, W. D. (2000). Playing to the press in McKinley's front porch campaign: The early weeks of the nineteenth century pseudo-event. RSQ: Rhetoric Society Quarterly, 30, 73-90.

Harris, D. B. (1998). The rise of the public speakership. Political Science Quarterly, 113, 193-212. [Speaker of the House speaking]

Hart, R. P. (2008). Thinking harder about presidential discourse: The question of efficacy. In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 238-248). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Hart, R. P. (1994). Seducing America: How television charms the Modern Voter. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hart, R. P. (1987). Some footnotes on the role of public communication in incumbent politics. In M. L. McLaughlin (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 10 (pp. 117-145). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Hart, R. P. (1987). The sound of leadership: Presidential communication in the modern age. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hart, R. P. (1986). Contemporary scholarship in public address: A research editorial. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 50, 283-295.

Hart, R. P. (1986). The role of public communication in electoral politics. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Communication Association. Chicago, Illinois.

Hart, R. P. (1984). The language of the modern presidency. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 14, 249-246.Hart, R. P. (1984). Verbal style and the presidency. Orlando: Academic Press.

Hart, R. P., & Childers, J. P. (2005). The evolution of candidate Bush: A rhetorical analysis. American Behavioral Scientist, 49. 180-197.

Hart, R. P., & Childers J. P. (2004). Verbal certainty in American politics: An overview and extension. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 34, 516-535.

Hart, R. P., Jennings, W. P., & Dixson, M. J. (2003). Imagining the American people: Strategies for building political community, Journal of Communication, 53, 138-

Hart, R. P., Jerome, P., & McComb, K. (1984). Rhetorical features of newscasts about the president. Critical Studies in Mass communication, 1, 260-286.

Hartnett, S. J., & Merceica, J. R. (2006). "Has your courage rusted?": National security and the contested rhetorical norms of Republicanism in post-revolutionary America, 1798-1801. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 9, 79-112.

Hauser, G. A., & Benoit-Barne, C. (2002). Reflections on rhetoric, deliberative democracy, civil society, and trust. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 261-275.

Hedges, J., & Hasian, M. Jr., (2005). Campaign posturing, military decision making, and the administrative amnesias. Rhetoric & Public Affairs; 8, 694-698.

Henry, D. (1994). Toward "a search for remedy": On political discourse in a democratic culture. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 80, 91-128.

Hicks, D. (2002). The promise(s) of deliberative democracy. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 223-260.

Hoffman, G. (2005). The rhetoric of Bush's speeches: Purr words and snarl words. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 62, 198-201.

Hoffman, K. S. (2002). "Going Public" in the nineteenth century: Grover Cleveland's repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 57-77.

Hogan, J. M. (2006). Woodrow Wilson’s Western Tour: Rhetoric, public opinion, and the League of Nations. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Hogan, J. M., & Williams, G. (2004). The rusticity and religiosity of Huey P. Long. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 7, 149-172.

Holloway, R. L. (1994). A time for change in American politics: The issue of the 1992 presidential campaign. In R. E. Denton (Ed.), The 1992 presidential campaign: A communication perspective (pp. 129-167). Westport CT: Praeger.

Hostetler, M. J. (2002). Washington's Farewell Address: Distance as bane and blessing. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 3, 393-407.

Hostetler, M. J. (1998). Gov. Al Smith confronts the Catholic question: The rhetorical legacy of the 1928 campaign. Communication Quarterly, 46, 12-24.

Hostetler, M. J. (1997). The enigmatic ends of rhetoric: Churchill�s Fulton Address as great art and failed persuasion. Quarterly Journal of Speech,, 83, 416-428.

Houck, D. W. (2002). FDR and Fear Itself: The First Inaugural address. College Station, TX: Texas A&M Univetsity Press.

Houck, D. W. (2001). Rhetoric as currency: Hoover, Roosevelt, and the Great Depression. College Station, TX: Texas A&M Univetsity Press.

Houck, D. W. (1997). Presidential rhetoric without qualifiers: Beyond the modern and rhetorical divide. Southern Communication Journal, 62,257-261. [Book review]

Houck, D. W., & Kiewe, A. (2003). FDR's Body Politics: The Rhetoric of Disability. College Station, TX: Texas A&M Univetsity Press.

Howell, B. W. (2003). Ronald Reagan's address at Moscow State University: A rhetoric of conciliation and subversion. Southern Communication Journal, 68, 107-120

Hubbard, B. (1998). Reassessing Truman, the bomb, and revisionism: The burlesque frame and entelechy in the decision to use atomic weapons against Japan. Western Journal of Communication, 62, 348-385.

Hurst, S. (2004). The rhetorical strategy of George H. W. Bush during the Persian Gulf Crisis 1990–91: How to help lose a war you won. Political Studies, 52, 376-392.

Huspek, M, & Kendall, K. E. (1991). On withholding political voice: An analysis of the political vocabulary of a 'non-political' speech community. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 77, 1-18.

Huxman, S. S., & Linkugel, W. A. (1988). Accusations and apologies from a general, a senator, and a priest. In H. R. Ryan (Ed.), Oratorical encounters: Selected studies and sources of twentieth-century political accusations and apologies (pp. 29-52). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Isaacson, C. (2000). My Governor Can Whup Your Governor's A..: Jesse Ventura Wrestles the Local Press to A No Decision - A Rhetorical Analysis of the Playboy Scandal. American Communication Journal, 4,http://acjournal.org/holdings/vol4/iss1/articles/isaacson.htm

Ivie, R. L. (2007). Fighting terror by rite of redemption and reconciliation. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 10, 221-249.

Ivie, R. L., (2007). Shadows of democracy in presidential rhetoric: An introduction to the special issue. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 577–579.

Ivie, R. L., (2005). Democracy and America's War on Teror. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Ivie, R. L. (2004). The rhetoric of Bush's "War" on evil. KB Journal, 1, http://kbjournal.org/node/53

Ivie, R. L., (2002). Rhetorical deliberation and democratic politics in the here and now. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 277-285.

Ivie, R. L. (2002). Distempered Demos: Myth, Metaphor, and U.S. Political Culture, in W. F. Hansen & G A. Schrempp (Eds.), Myth: A New Symposium, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Ivie, R. L.. (1999). Fire, Flood, and Red Fever: Motivating Metaphors of Global Emergency in the Truman Doctrine Speech, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 29, 570-591.

Ivie, R. L. (1998). Democratic Deliberation in a Rhetorical Republic, Quarterly Journal of Speech , 84 , 491-505.

Ivie, R. L. (1996). Tragic fear and the rhetorical presidency: Combating evil in the Persian Gulf. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Beyond the rhetorical presidency (pp. 153-178). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Ivie, R. L. (1980). Images of savagery of American justifications of war. Communication Monographs, 47, 279-294.

Ivie, R. L. (1974). Presidential motives for war. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 60, 337-345.

Ivie, R. L., & Giner, O. (2009). More good, less evil: Contesting the mythos of national insecurity in the 2008 presidential primaries. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 12, 279-301.

Ivie, R. L., & Giner, O. (2007). Hunting the Devil: Democracy's rhetorical impulse to war. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 580–598.

Ivie, R. L., & Giner, O. (2009).Genealogy of myth in presidential rhetoric. Sourcebook for political communication research:  Methods, measures, and analytical techniques. In E. P. Bucy and R. L. Holbert (Eds.). Routledge.

Jacobs, L. R., Page, B. I., Burns, M. McAvoy, G. & Oster, E. (2003). What presidents talk about: The Nixon case. Presidential Studies Quarterly; 33, 751-771.

Janiewski, D. E. (2011). Eisenhower's paradoxical relationship with the “Military-Industrial Complex”. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 667–692.

Jamieson, K. H., (1988). Eloquence in an electronic age: The transformation of political speechmaking. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jardine, M. (1998). Speech and political practice: Recovering the place of human responsibility. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Jarvis, S. E. (2004). Partisan patterns in presidential campaign speeches, 1948-2000. Communication Quarterly, 52, 403-419.

Jarvis, S. E., & Jones E. B. (2005). Party labesl in presidential acceptance addresses: 1948-2000. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 29-48). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Jefferson, B. S. (1997). The Truman administration: Rhetorically trapped by anti-Communist popular press. Speaker and Gavel, 34, 64-80.

Jensen, R. J. (2007). Reagan at Bergen-Belsen and Bitburg. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Jerit, J. (2004). Survival of the fittest: Rhetoric during the course of an election campaign. Political Psychology, 25, 563-576.

Jerit. J. (2002). The nature and dynamic of political rhetoric. Dissertation Abstracts International, DAI-A 3/02. p.737.

Johnson, Janet. "Twitter Bites and Romney: Examining the Rhetorical Situation of the 2012 Presidential Election in 140 Characters." Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric 2 (2012): 54-64.

Jones, J., & Rowland, R. (2005). A covenant-affirming jeremiad: The post-presidential ideological appeals of Ronald Reagan. Communication Studies , 56, 157-174.

Jordan, J. W. (2003). Kennedy's romantic moon and its rhetorical legacy for space exploration. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6, 209-232.

Kalb, D., Peters, G., & Wooley, J. T. (2006) State of the Union: Presidential Rhetoric from Woodrow Wilson to George W. Bush. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Kaplan, L. S. (2002). Jefferson vs. Napoleon: The limits of rhetoric. In L. G. Dorsey (Ed.), The presidency and rhetorical leadership (pp. 95-114). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Kassop, N. (2005). Not going public: George W. Bush and the presidential records act. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 255-278). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Kaylor, B. T. (2011). Presidential campaign rhetoric in an age of confessional politics. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books

Keith, W. M. (2007). Democracy as discusssion: Civic education and the American forum movment. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Kelley, C. E. (2007). Post-9/11 American presidential rhetoric: A study in protofacist discourse. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Kelley, C. E. (1987). The 1984 campaign rhetoric of representative George Hansen: A pentadic analysis. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 51, 204-217.

Kelley, C., & Troester, R. (1992). The 1988 campaign rhetoric of George Bush: Some demagogic strategies. Journal of Communication and Media Arts, 1, 65-80.

Kelley, C. S., & Marshall, B. W. (2008). The last word: Presidential power and the role of signing statements. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 38, 248–267.

Kellner, D. (2007). Bushspeak and the politics of lying: Presidential rhetoric in the "War on Terror". Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 622–645.

Kendall, K. E. (1993). Public speaking in the presidential primaries through media eyes. American Behavioral Scientist, 37, 240-251.

Kendall, K. E., & Trent, J. S. (1989). Presidential surfacing in the New Hampshire primary. Political Communication Review, 14, 1-29.

Kennedy, K. A., & Benoit, W. L. (1997). The Newt Gringrich book deal controversy: Self defense rhetoric. Southern Communication Journal, 62, 197-216.

Kertzer, D. I. (1988). Ritual, politics, and power. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Kiewe, A. (2007). FDR's first fireside chat: : Public confidence and the banking crisis. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Kiewe, A. (Ed.) (1994). The modern presidency and crisis rhetoric. Westport, CT: Praeger.

King, R. L. (1985). Transforming scandal into tragedy: A rhetoric of political apology. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 71, 289-301.

Kitchens, J. T., & Powell, L. (1985). A critical analysis of NCPAC's strategies in key 1980 races: A third party negative campaign. Southern States Speech Journal, 51, 208-228.

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