Missouri Compromise Edit
Northern Republicans attempted to ban slavery in Missouri statehood bill. Tallmadge Amendments, which failed in the Senate, would have enacted a post-nati manumission law and banned importation of slaves into Missouri. Bill that passed, crafted by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun, admitted Missouri as slave and Maine as free. Thomas Amendment banned slavery in Louisiana Territory N of 36° 30°. See Map of Missouri Compromise. Federal fugitive slave law was enacted for parts of Louisiana Territory lying above the Thomas Amendment line. John Quincy Adams: "I take it for granted that the present question is a mere preamble a title-page to a great, tragic volume." Also see Jefferson, Letter to John Holmes.
Elections of 1824-1828 John Quincy Adams defeats Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson with John C. Calhoun as Vice President. Jackson wins plurality of popular and electoral vote; election thrown to house. 1828: Adams prefers Clay to Calhoun as vice president; Calhoun consolidates Southern position by writing in secret, while still V.P., the South Carolina Exposition and Protest. Andrew Jackson leads Calhoun followers and coalition of enemies of high tariff to landslide victory and new Democratic party.
One Party Rule: Democrats Edit
From 1828-1834 the Democrats replaced Republican one party rule, with a strong anti-tariff, expansionist, ant-federalist platform dominated by the personality of Andrew Jackson.
Webster-Hayne Debate of 1830 Erupted over a resolution by Samuel Augustus Foot of Connecticut, to limit sale of public lands, an attempt to prevent expansion westward and the possible acquisition of Texas from Mexico. Foot resolution attacked by Benton of Missouri and Robert Hayne of South Carolina. Hayne uses the occasion to defend the principle of nullification put forward in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest. In Daniel Webster's two replies to Hayne, his language in praise of the Union elevates the Union as a high ideal and is widely popularized and imitated. Jackson, who was expected to come in on the side of nullification, proposes a toast at a dinner to observe Jefferson's birthday: "Our Federal Union. It must be preserved".
The Marshall Court and the Cherokee Removal The State of Georgia wished to annex Creek and Cherokee territory within its borders and subject Indians to state laws while not allowing them standing as citizens. The Cherokee retained William Wirt to argue their case before the Supreme Court. By accepting the case, the Supreme Court asserted its jurisdiction over the State of Georgia. In the decision, however, the Court rejected the notion that the Cherokee Nation had the same rights as a foreign nation. In a second decision, however, the Supreme Court overruled a Georgia law requiring whites in Indian territory to swear allegiance to the State of Georgia. President Jackson refused to enforce the decision.
Calhoun resigns as Vice President in 1832, and is replaced by Martin Van Buren.
South Carolina nullifies the tariff acts of 1828 and 1832. Jackson responds in a Proclamation. Force Bill gives Jackson more military power and compromise tariff gradually lowers rates. SC nullifies the Force Bill but accepts the compromise tariff. Also in 1832, Jackson vetoed the recharter of the Bank of the United States, ushering in an era of easy credit and inflation associated with Western land expansion.