This  bibliography aspires to be comprehensive in rhetorical theory and criticism and selective from general sources and sources in other fields.

Selected Works on MetaporEdit

Barfield, Owen. Poetic Diction: A Study in Meaning. 2nd ed. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan UP, 1973.

Black, Max. Models and Metaphors. New York: Cornell, 1962.

Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1980.

Pepper, Stephen C. World Hypotheses: A Study in Evidence. Los Angeles: U of California P, 1942.

Richards, I. A. The Philosophy of Rhetoric. New York: Oxford Press, 1936.

Ricoeur, Paul. The Rule of Metaphor: Multi-disciplinary Studies of the Creation of Meaning in Language. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1977.

Turner, Victor. Dramas, Fields and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1974.

White, Hayden. Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1973.

References in Rhetorical Theory and CriticismEdit

Adams, John Charles. "Linguistic Values and Religious Experiences: An Analysis of Clothing Metaphors in Alexander Richardson's Ramist-Puritan Lectures on Speech, 'Speech is a garment to cloath our reason'." Quarterly Journal of Speech 76 (1990): 58-68.

Aden, Roger C. "Back to the Garden: Therapeutic Place Metaphor in Field of Dreams." Southern Communication Journal 59 (1993): 307-317.

---. "Entrapment and Escape: Inventional Metaphors in Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric." Southern Communication Journal 54 (1988): 384-400.

Aden, Roger C., and Christina L. Reynolds. "Lost and Found in America: The Function of Place Metaphor in Sports Illustrated." Southern Communication Journal 59 (1993): 1-14.

Akioye, Akin A. "The Rhetorical Construction of Radical Africanism at the United Nations: Metaphoric Cluster as Strategy." Discourse and Society 5 (1991): 7-31.

Ausmus, William A. "Pragmatic Uses of Metaphor: Models and Metaphor in the Nuclear Winter Scenario." Communication Monographs 65 (1998): 67-82.

Barker, Simon. "Rigour or Vigour: Metaphor, Argument, and Internet." Philosophy & Rhetoric 31 (1998): 248-265.

Beer, Francis A., and Christ'l de Landtsheer, eds. Metaphorical World Politics. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 2004.

Birdsell, David S. "Kenneth Burke at the Nexus of Argument and Trope." Argumentation and Advocacy 29 (1993): 178-185

Black, Edwin. "The Second Persona." Quarterly Journal of Speech 56 (1970): 109-119.

Bontekoe, Ron. "The Function of Metaphor." Philosophy and Rhetoric 20 (1987): 209-226.

Borisoff, Deborah, and Dan F. Hahn. "Thinking with the Body: Sexual Metaphors." Communication Quarterly 41 (1993): 253-260.

Brown, Richard Harvey. "Rhetoric and the Science of History: The Debate Between Evolutionism and Empiricism as a Conflict in Metaphors." Quarterly Journal of Speech 72 (1986): 148-161.

Bryan, Ferald J. "Vico on Metaphor: Implications for Rhetorical Criticism." Philosophy and Rhetoric 19 (1986): 255-265.

Campbell, Paul Newell. "Metaphor and Linguistic Theory." Quarterly Journal of Speech 61 (1975): 1-12.

Caraher, Brian G. "Metaphor as Contradiction: A Grammar and Epistemology of Poetic Metaphor." Philosophy and Rhetoric 14 (1981): 69-88.

Carpenter, Ronald H. "America's Tragic Metaphor: Our Twentieth-Century Combatants as Frontiersmen." Quarterly Journal of Speech 76 (1990): 1-22.

Condit, Celeste M., et al. "Recipes or Blueprints for Our Genes? How Contexts Selectively Activate the Multiple Meanings of Metaphors." Quarterly Journal of Speech 88 (2002): 303-325.

Daughton, Suzanne M. "Metaphorical Transcendence: Images of the Holy War in Franklin Roosevelt's First Inaugural." Quarterly Journal of Speech 79 (1993): 427-446.

Farrell, Thomas B., and G. Thomas Goodnight. "Accidental Rhetoric: The Root Metaphors of Three Mile Island." Communication Monographs 48 (1981): 271-300.

Fearing, Franklin. "The Problem of Metaphor." Southern Speech Journal 29 (1963): 47-55.

Fernandez, Ruby Ann, and Richard J. Jensen."Reies Lopez Tijerina's 'The Land Grant Question': Creating History through Metaphors." Howard Journal of Communications 6 (1995): 129-145.

Franke, William. "Metaphor and the Making of Sense: The Contemporary Metaphor Renaissance." Philosophy & Rhetoric 33 (2000): 137-153.

Frentz, Thomas S. "Creative Metaphors, Synchronicity, and Quantum Physics." Philosophy & Rhetoric 44/2 (2011): 101-128.

---.  "Toward a Resolution of the Generative Semantics/Classical Theory Controversy: A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Metaphor." Quarterly Journal of Speech 60 (1974): 125-133.

Fritch, John E., and Karla K. Leeper. "Poetic Logic: The Metaphoric Form as a Foundation for a Theory of Tropological Argument." Argumentation and Advocacy 29 (1993): 186-194.

Graves, Michael P. "Functions of Key Metaphors in Early Quaker Sermons, 1671-1700." Quarterly Journal of Speech 69 (1983): 364-378.

Gribbin, William. "The Juggernaut Metaphor in American Rhetoric." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 297-303.

Griffin, Leland M. "The Edifice Metaphor in Rhetorical Theory." Speech Monographs 27 (1960): 279-292.

Halloran, Stephen M. "Language and the Absurd." Philosophy and Rhetoric 6 (1973): 97-108.

Hardy-Short, Dayle C., and C. Brant Short."Fire, Death, and Rebirth: A Metaphoric Analysis of the 1988 Yellowstone Fire Debate." Western Journal of Communication 59 (1995): 103-125.

Hastings, Arthur. "Metaphor in Rhetoric." Western Speech 34 (1970): 181-194.

Hausman, Carl R. "Language and Metaphysics: The Ontology of Metaphor." Philosophy and Rhetoric 24 (1991): 25-42.

Heckman, Peter. "Nietzsche's Clever Animal: Metaphor in 'Truth and Falsity'." Philosophy and Rhetoric 24 (1991): 301-321.

Hidalgo-Serna, Emilio. "Metaphorical Language, Rhetoric, and Comprehensio: J. L. Vives and M. Nizolio." Philosophy and Rhetoric 23 (1990): 1-11.

Hymers, Michael. "Metaphor, Cognitivity, and Meaning-Holism." Philosophy & Rhetoric 31 (1998): 266-282.

Ivie, Robert L. "Fire, Flood, and Red Fever: Motivating Truman Doctrine Speech." Presidential Studies Quarterly 29 (1999): 570-591.

---. "The Ideology of Freedom's 'Fragility' in American Foreign Policy Argument." Journal of the American Forensic Association 24 (1987): 27-36.

---. "Literalizing the Metaphor of Soviet Savagery: President Truman's Plain Style." Southern Speech Communication Journal 51 (1985): 91-105.

---. "Metaphor and the Rhetorical Invention of Cold War 'Idealists'." Communication Monographs 54 (1987): 165-182.

---. "The Metaphor of Force in Prowar Discourse: The Case of 1812." Quarterly Journal of Speech 68 (1982): 240-253.

Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. "The Metaphoric Cluster in the Rhetoric of Pope Paul VI and Edmund G. Brown, Jr." Quarterly Journal of Speech 66 (1980): 51-72.

Jensen, J. Vernon. "British Voices on the Eve of the American Revolution: Trapped by the Family Metaphor." Quarterly Journal of Speech 63 (1977): 43-50.

Jones, John Bush. "Impersonation and Authenticity: The Theatre as Metaphor in Kopit's Indians." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 443-451.

Jordan, William J., and W. Clifton Adams. "I. A. Richards' Concept of Tenor-Vehicle Interaction." Central States Speech Journal 27 (1976): 136-143.

Kaufer, David S., and Christine M. Neuwirth. "Contrasts Between Ironic and Metaphoric Understanding: An Elaboration of Booth's Observations." Western Journal of Speech Communication 47 (1983): 75-83.

Kirkwood, William G. "Parables as Metaphors and Examples." Quarterly Journal of Speech 71 (1985): 422-440.

Kuusisto, Riikka "Heroic Tale, Game, and Business Deal? Western Metaphors in Action in Kosovo." Quarterly Journal of Speech 88 (2002): 50-68.

Leeman, Richard W. "Spatial Metaphors in African-American Discourse." Southern Communication Journal 60 (1994): 165-180.

Leff, Michael. "Topical Invention and Metaphoric Interaction." Southern Speech Communication Journal 48 (1982): 214-229.

Leff, Micahel, and Andrew Sachs. "Words the Most Like Things: Iconicity and the Rhetorical Text." Western Journal of Speech Communication 54 (1990): 252-273.

Levin, Samuel R. "Aristotle's Theory of Metaphor." Philosophy and Rhetoric 15 (1982): 24-46.

Loewenberg, Ina. "Truth and Consequences of Metaphors." Philosophy and Rhetoric 6 (1973): 30-46.

Matlack, Cynthia S. "Metaphor and Dramatic Structure in The Chalk Garden." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 304-310.

Mechling, Elizabeth Walker, and Jay Mechling. "The Atom According to Disney." Quarterly Journal of Speech 81 (1995): 436-453.

Mumby, Dennis K., and Carole Spitzack. "Ideology and Television News: A Metaphoric Analysis of Political Stories." Central States Speech Journal 34 (1983): 162-171.

wa Mwachofi, Ngure. "Apprehending the Power and Ideological Import of Metaphor in President de Klerk's Rhetoric." Howard Journal of Communications 5 (1995): 331-352.

Myers, C. Mason. "Metaphors and the Intelligibility of Dreams." Philosophy and Rhetoric 2 (1969): 91-99.

Nothstine, W. L. "'Topics' as Ontological Metaphor in Contemporary Rhetorical Theory and Criticism." Quarterly Journal of Speech 74 (1988): 151-163.

Nuyen, A. T. "The Kantian Theory of Metaphor." Philosophy and Rhetoric 22 (1989): 95-109.

Osborn, Michael. "Archetypal Metaphor in Rhetoric: The Light-Dark Family." Quarterly Journal of Speech 53 (1967): 115-126.

---. "The Evolution of the Archetypal Sea in Rhetoric and Poetic." Quarterly Journal of Speech 63 (1977): 347-363.

---. "The Evolution of the Theory of Metaphor in Rhetoric." Western Speech 31 (1967): 121-131.

Osborn, Michael M., and Douglas Ehninger. "The Metaphor in Public Address." Speech Monographs 29 (1962): 223-234.

Paul, Anthony M. "Metaphor and the Bounds of Expression." Philosophy and Rhetoric 5 (1972): 143-158.

Perry, Steven. "Rhetorical Functions of the Infestation Metaphor in Hitler's Rhetoric" Central States Speech Journal 34 (1983): 229-235.

Philips, Kendall R. "A Metaphor of Controversy." Western Journal of Communication (1999): 488-510.

Rickert, William E. "Winston Churchill's Archetypal Metaphors: A Mythopoetic Translation of World War II." Central States Speech Journal 28 (1977): 106-112.

Schneider, Valerie. "Parker's Assessment of Webster: Argumentative Synthesis Through the Tragic Metaphor." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 330-336.

Siltanen, Susan A . "The Persuasiveness of Metaphor: A Replication and Extension." Southern Speech Communication Journal 47 (1981): 67-83.

Smith, Ruth C., and Eric M. Eisenberg. "Conflict at Disneyland: A Root-Metaphor Analysis." Communication Monographs 54 (1987): 367-380.

Solomon, Martha. "Villainless Quest: Myth, Metaphor, and Dream in 'Chariots of Fire'." Communication Quarterly 31 (1983): 274-281.

Stelzner, Hermann G. "Analysis by Metaphor." Quarterly Journal of Speech 51 (1965): 52-61.

---. "Ford's War on Inflation: A Metaphor That Did Not Cross." Communication Monographs 44 (1977): 284-297.

Stewart, Donald. "Metaphor and Paraphrase." Philosophy and Rhetoric 4 (1971): 111-123.

Tallmon, James M. "Metaphor in William Rehnquist's Judicial Rhetoric." Free Speech Yearbook 34 (1996): 78-87.

van Teeffelen, Toine. "Racism and Metaphor: The Palestinian-Israeli Conflict in Popular Literature." Discourse and Society 5 (1994): 381-405.

Turetzky, Philip. "Metaphor and Paraphrase." Philosophy & Rhetoric 21 (1988): 205-219.

Voth, Ben "The Wall Separating Church and State: A Longitudinal Analysis of Metaphor as Argument." Argumentation & Advocacy 34 (1998): 127-139.

van Woudenberg, Rene. "Panmetaphoricism Examined." Philosophy & Rhetoric 31 (1998): 231-247.

Xu, Cihua, Chuanrui Zhang, and Yicheng Wu. "Enlarging The Scope Of Metaphor Studies." Intercultural Pragmatics 13.3 (2016): 439-447.

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