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Eros Peitho Venus Anteros MAN Napoli Inv9257 (1)

The Goddess Peitho with Eros

This chronology enables Peitho's devotees to see at a glance the interaction of rhetoric with ancient cultures in Greece, Rome, and the Near East.  Ends with the beginnings of Christian rhetoric.

ChronologyEdit

Prior to 8th c. BCEEdit

Ca. 1780 BCE Hammurabi's law, the first known written law code.

Ca. 1700Edit

Invention of alphabet by Canaanites, proto-Phoenicians/Israelites, inhabiting Sinai and Palestine

12th c.Edit

Israelites occupy hill country of Palestine

1050-950Edit

Greek speaking Ionians colonize coast of Asia Minor (present-day Albania, Turkey, Syria)

Ca. 926Edit

Israelites divide into two kingdoms, Israel and Judah. Possible date of the Book of J, the oldest Israelite history, partially preserved in Genesis-Kings.

8th C. BCE - 450 BCEEdit

776Edit

First Olympic Games

753Edit

Traditional date for founding of Rome

By 750Edit

Greek alphabet developed from Phoenician-Hebrew prototype

722/21Edit

Kingdom of Israel destroyed by Shalmaneser V of Assyria and his successor Sargon II. 8th c. prophets Isaiah, Amos, Hosea, Micah.

By 700Edit

Homeric Epics, Iliad, Odyssey

639-609Edit

Reign of Josiah king of Judah. Book of Deuteronomy and Deuteronomistic History.

6th c.Edit

Milesian Presocratic philosophers (Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes) Beginnings of Athenian Democracy

594Edit

Solon archon of Athens; law code of Solon

586Edit

Kingdom of Judah destroyed by Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon. Prophet Jeremiah.

561Edit

Reign of Pisistratos in Athens, first tyrant

538Edit

Cyrus of Persia conquers Babylon: beginning of Persian empire. Prophet Second Isaiah.

525Edit

Cleisthenes archon of Athens; Cambyses of Persia conquers Egypt

507Edit

Cleisthenes introduces democratic reforms in Athens

509Edit

Rise of Roman republic

Late 6th c.Edit

Presocratics: Theognis of Megara, Xenophanes, Pythagoras

499-494Edit

Ionian revolt against the Persians

494Edit

Roman office of tribune established, wielding the veto to protect the interests of the plebeians against the patrician magistrates

490-479Edit

Persian Wars

487Edit

Athenian archons chosen by lot

478Edit

Delian league of Greek city states against Persia, Athenian leadership. Origins of Athenian empire.

476Edit

Thrasybulus, tyrant of Syracuse, overthrown. Corax and Tisias. The first techne.

Ca.470Edit

Great tragedians Aeschylus and Sophocles begin their careers

467-466Edit

Athenians defeat Persians

465-464Edit

Delian league breaks up when Spartans refuse Athenian assistance

463Edit

Pericles begins public career in Athens. Beginning of Athenian Golden Age

461Edit

Athenians institute radical democracy; First Peloponnesian War.

451Edit

Recording of Twelve Tables of Roman law, perhaps as a result of Greek influence. Traditional date for the invention of rhetoric in Syracuse.

450 - 336 BCEEdit

Ca.450Edit

Periclean citizenship law; truce with Sparta; Early sophists Protagoras of Abdera; Empedocles; Zeno of Elea (the "Eleatic stranger")

447Edit

Parthenon begun

443Edit

Pericles general of Athenian forces

440s-430sEdit

Herodotus active, writes History of the Persian War

441-439Edit

Ionian island of Samos revolts against Athens

Ca.441Edit

Euripides, tragedian, begins career

Fl.440Edit

Protagoras, Prodicus, Hippias of Elea, sophists

431Edit

Second Peloponnesian War begins; Thucydides begins his History. See guide to Thucydides. Phase One: Archidamian War

430Edit

Pericles' Funeral Oration

429Edit

Death of Pericles; Cleon leads Athens

428-427Edit

Revolt of Lesbos; Athenian expedition to Sicily

427Edit

Gorgias of Leontini, sophist, arrives with embassy to Athens.

Ca.427Edit

Birth of Plato

425Edit

Aristophanes, comedian, begins career; Death of Herodotus

424Edit

Boiotians defeat Athenians at Battle of Delion; Thucydides exiled

422Edit

Nicias leads Athens

421Edit

Peace of Nicias with Sparta ends Archidamian War (Peloponnesian War Phase One)

420Edit

Alcibiades, student of Socrates, becomes general

423Edit

Aristophanes writes The Clouds, a play lampooning sophists, including Socrates

416Edit

Athenian expedition to Melos (The Melian dialogue)

415Edit

Expedition to Sicily. Peloponnesian War, Phase Two. Alcibiades discredited over mutilation of Hermae at Athens.

412Edit

War resumes with Sparta; Spartans deal with Persians; Theodorus of Byzantium, sophist

411Edit

Oligarchic coup at Athens

410Edit

Democracy restored, Alcibiades recalled

410-400Edit

Athenian laws revised

407Edit

Plato joins the circle of Socrates

404Edit

Athens falls to Sparta

404-403Edit

Oligarchic coup of Thirty Tyrants, led by Critias, a student of Socrates

403Edit

Democracy restored; Lysias xii, Against Eratosthenes (Attic orator c.407-c.380, enemy of Thirty Tyrants, appears as author of first speech in Phaedrus)

401-399Edit

Combined Greek forces under Cyrus mount new expedition against Persia

Ca.400Edit

Other rhetoricians flourishing about this time: Evenus of Paros, Callippus, Pamphilus, Lycophron, Polus, Licymnius, author of Dissoi Logoi.

399Edit

Trial and death of Socrates; Andocides i, On the Mysteries (Attic orator before 415-392/1).

397Edit

Isocrates xvi (Isocrates active 390s-338).

395-387Edit

War with Corinth

394Edit

Persians defeat Spartan fleet at Cnidus

393Edit

Isocrates opens his school at Athens

391Edit

Isocrates xiii, Against the Sophists

ca. 387Edit

Lysias, Funeral Oration (commemorates Athenian casualties in Corinth)ian war)

386Edit

Truce with Persia; Plato founds his Academy

385Edit

Plato, Menexenus

384Edit

Births of Demosthenes and Aristotle

380Edit

Isocrates iv, Panegyricus; Plato, Gorgias

378-377Edit

Second Athenian League

371-362Edit

War between Thebes and Sparta; Sparta defeated

367Edit

Aristotle joins Plato's Academy; First plebeian consul elected to assembly at Rome; plebeians become eligible to serve as magistrates and thus eventually to enter the Senate.

Ca. 360Edit

Plato, Phaedrus. Introduction of the Roman praetorship, a civil and juridical office that freed the consuls for military affairs.

359Edit

Philip II king of Macedon

357-356Edit

Social War between Athens and its allies; war with Philip II over Amphipolis; Demosthenes, First Philippic

354Edit

Athens defeated in Social War

353Edit

Isocrates iv, Antidosis

349Edit

Demosthenes, Second Olynthiac

347Edit

Death of Plato

346Edit

Peace of Philocrates between Philip and Athens. Isocrates, Address to Philip

343Edit

Trial and acquittal of Aeschines: Demosthenes xix and Aeschines ii (On the Embassy); Aristotle leaves the Academy to become tutor of Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon

341Edit

Demosthenes, Third Philippic

340Edit

Letter of Philip to Athens

339Edit

Isocrates xii, Panathenaicus

338Edit

Philip defeats Athenians and Thebans at Chaeronea. Conventional end of Greek "liberty." Death of Isocrates

337Edit

Philip's Corinthian League declares war with Persia; Lycurgus controls Athenian finances

336 Edit

Philip assassinated, Alexander becomes emperor

335-27 BCEEdit

335Edit

Alexander destroys Thebes. Aristotle settles at Athens, founds Peripatetic School near Lyceum. Produces Rhetoric Bks. I-II. Preceded by the Organon: Categories, On Interpretation, Topics, Prior Analytics, Posterior Analytics. Followed by On Sophistical Refutations, Nichomachean Ethics, Politics, Poetics, and Rhetoric Bk. III. Lost works: Synagoge technon; Rhetoric to Theodectes; Gryllus

334Edit

Alexander begins expedition to Persia

331Edit

Alexandria founded in Egypt

330Edit

Demosthenes xviii, On the Crown; Aeschines iii, Against Ctesiphon; Lycurgus i, Against Leocrates Anaximenes, Rhetorica ad Alexandrum.

325-324Edit

Death of Lycurgus; Demosthenes exiled

323-322Edit

Death of Alexander sets off Lamian War; Athens defeated by Macedonians. Enkyklios paideia establishes Greek rhetorical education as center of Panhellenic culture from Sicily to India.

322Edit

Athenian constitution altered; oligarchy imposed, enforced by Macedonian garrison. Death of Aristotle (384-322), Demosthenes (384-322). Hyperides, Funeral Oration for Athenian dead in last battle against Macedon.

ca. 300Edit

Theophrastus; On Characters.

264-241Edit

First Punic War with Carthage, a Phoenician colony in Tunisia that developed a trans-Mediterranean empire

ca. 250Edit

Demetrius, On Style. Translation of Hebrew Bible into Greek (Septuagint) in progress or complete? in Alexandria, Egypt.

253Edit

Titus Coruncanius, first plebeian chief priest, begins teaching jurisprudence to lay students, initiating tradition of Roman jurists. The jurists did not practice law but were teachers and advisers to those who did. By recording, enlarging and interpreting traditional statutes they developed Roman legal precedent.

218Edit

Second Punic War

ca. 150Edit

Hermagoras of Temnos. Credited with introduction of stasis system of invention. Treatise does not survive.

149-146Edit

Third Punic War results in destruction of Carthage. Roman aristocrats benefit while plebeians suffer cost of war. Prisoners of war increased the slave population.

133-123Edit

Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, elected consuls, attempted agrarian reforms to grant land to citizens uprooted by war and to give equal citizenship to Italics (Italians not born in Rome). Reform fails.

106Edit

Birth of Cicero

102Edit

Caius Marius professionalizes army, defeats Germans in France and northern Italy.

91Edit

Setting of Cicero's dialogue De Oratore: Crassus' villa in Tusculum.

88Edit

Civil War breaks out between Sulla and Marius. Sulla occupies Rome; Marius recruits indigent citizens as mercenaries, irreversibly altering the relationship between civil and military power. Catilina participates in murder of Cicero's cousin and Marius' nephew, Praetor Marcus Marius Gratidianus (Everitt 89).

86Edit

Cicero, De inventione.

81Edit

Dictatorship of Sulla

79Edit

Cicero leaves for tour of eastern Mediterranean: begins rhetorical studies at Rhodes.

73-71Edit

Slave revolt of Spartacus

70Edit

Consulship of Pompey and Crassus

63Edit

Consulship of Cicero. Catilinarian conspiracy.

60Edit

First triumvirate of Pompey, Crassus and Julius Caesar.

59Edit

Consulship of Caesar

55Edit

Cicero, De oratore

53Edit

Death of Crassus

49-45Edit

Civil War

46Edit

Cicero, Brutus, Orator

45Edit

Cicero, De partitiones oratoriae

44Edit

Dictatorship and assassination of J. Caesar. Cicero, Topica.

43Edit

Second triumvirate of Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus. Assassination of Cicero.

30-8Edit

Dionysius of Halicarnassus teaches in Rome. Critical Essays.

27Edit

Octavian becomes Augustus Caesar. End of the Roman Republic.

27 BCE- 410 CEEdit

14CEEdit

Emperor Tiberius. Traditional beginning of "second sophistic."

ca. 50 CEEdit

Longinus, On the Sublime.

54Edit

Emperor Nero.

69Edit

Emperor Vespasian.

70Edit

Destruction of Second Jerusalem Temple by Romans. Gospel of Mark.

80-90Edit

Gospel of Luke-Acts

87Edit

Quintilian appointed head of state school of oratory in Rome.

ca. 90Edit

Gospel of Matthew

92-95Edit

Quintilian, Institutio oratoria. Tacitus, Dialogue on Oratory.

ca. 100Edit

Council of Jamnia fixes Jewish canon of Hebrew Bible, separating Christians from Judaism. Gospel of John.

ca. 175Edit

Hermogenes of Tarsus, Techne, including On Staseis and On Qualities of Style.

330Edit

Founding of Constantinople.

382Edit

Jerome begins Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible, effectively fixing the Latin canon.

390Edit

Gregory of Nazianzus, Orations (d. 390)

395Edit

Division of Roman Empire into East (Constantinople = Byzantium) and West (Rome)

395-430Edit

Augustine bishop of Hippo

ca. 400Edit

Apthonius, Progymnasmata.

407Edit

John Chrysostom, Orations (d. 407)

410Edit

Fall of Rome to Vandals.

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