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Aristotle's Rhetoric Book Two contains the Ethical and Pathetic proofs and the remaining Logical proofs not connected to any special kind of rhetoric.

Ethical and Pathetic Proofs [2.1.1-11 (1377b-1388b)]Edit

General Discussion of Ethos [2.1.1-9 (1377b-1378a)]Edit

The Object of Rhetoric is Judgment. The Speaker's character is more important for deliberative oratory, whereas the Judge's frame of mind is more important fro forensic oratory.

Three qualities necessary to produce conviction [2.1.5-7]Edit

  • good sense
  • virtue
  • good will

==Definition of emotions [2.1.8-9] The emotions are all those affections which cause men to change their opinion in regard to their judgments, and are accompanied by pleasure and pain.

Catalogue of Ethical/Pathetic Proofs [2.2-11 (1378a-1388b)]Edit

Anger and Mildness [2.2-3 (1378a-1380b)]Edit

Analysis of Anger [2.2]Edit

  • Definition : an impulse (accompanied by pain) to enact revenge for a conspicuous slight enacted without justification toward what concerns oneself of one's friends. [2.2 (1378a)]
  • Slights
  • Dispositions of those roused to anger
  • Objects of anger

Analysis of Mildness [2.3]Edit

  • Definition (Opposite of Anger)
  • Opposite of slights

Love and Hate [2.4 (1381a-1382a)]Edit

Fear and Confidence [2.5 (1382a-1383b)]Edit

Shame and Shamelessnes [2.6 (1383b-1385a)]Edit

Gratitude and Its Lack [2.7 (1385a-b)]Edit

Pity and Indignation [2.8-9 (1385b-1388a)]Edit

Envy [2.10 (1388a)]Edit

Emulation [2.11 (1388b)]Edit

Catalogue of Characters [2.12-17 (1389a-1391b)]Edit

Ages [2.12-14 (1389a-1390b)]Edit

  • Youth
  • Old Age
  • Prime of Life

Fortunes [2.15-17 (1390b-1391b)]Edit

  • Noble Birth
  • Wealth
  • Power

Logical ProofsEdit

Catalogue of Common or General Topics [2.18-19 (1391b-1393a)Edit

Possible/Impossible (Deliberative)Edit



Degree (of difficulty; of excellence)Edit


That which we desireEdit

The subjects of science or artEdit

Things whose means of production is within our powerEdit

Parts and wholesEdit

Genus and speciesEdit

Natural correspondences (quantities)Edit

Artless vs. artfulEdit

Inferior vs. superiorEdit

Past fact/Future fact (Forensic)Edit

Less to more likelyEdit


Ability and motiveEdit


Antecedence and ConsequenceEdit

And likewise for the futureEdit

Magnitude (Epideictic)Edit

...since in each branch of rhetoric the end set before it is a good, such as the expedient, the noble, or the just, it is evident that all must take the materials of amplification from these. (2.19.27)

Inductive and Deductive Proofs [2.20-22 (1393a-1397a)]Edit


  • Historical Examples
  • Fables


Enthymemes [2.23-26 (1397a-1403b)Edit

Catalogue of EnthymemesEdit

Topics of EnthymemesEdit

Apparent EnthymemesEdit